Whether it is the US-Russian game or the conflict between Israel and Iran, the conflicts between these countries are always reminding us that wars may break out in the world at any time. Although world peace is the voice of all countries in the world, we must admit that we cannot control the development of the international situation. Therefore, the development of national defense is particularly important. In the international arms market, there are many "star fighters", such as the American F-35, Russia's Su- 30, Su-57, and so on.
Faced with such a situation, my country has also vigorously developed national defense construction. Today, my country has also ushered in a batch of J-10 export orders, and the other party ordered 50 in one go, which is applauded. It is worth mentioning that the other party also made a request. The country that placed the order is Pakistan. The India-Pakistan conflict has caused turmoil in the international arena. Pakistan is in urgent need of a fighter jet to contend with India. Prior to this, Iran also sent an important signal to my country, hoping to introduce my country’s J-10 fighter jets to improve The combat capability of the Iranian Air Force.
You know, as Pakistan's "old rival", the Indian Air Force is equipped with a large number of Rafale fighters. The first unit equipped with this fighter is the 17th Squadron of the Indian Air Force. After a period of training, the Indian army has begun to find a "sense of existence." Facing India, which is constantly making small moves, the Pakistani military is facing tremendous pressure. In order to alleviate the pressure brought by India, Pakistan decided to purchase the J-10 fighter. In the eyes of Pakistan, this fighter is very cost-effective. Once it has this fighter, Pakistan has a lot of confidence in the competition with India. Advantages, by then, India will not dare to act rashly.
Now, Pakistan is the first to place an order, and it has also taken a big shot. It bought 50 in one go. Netizens called out: Is the J-10 going to be snatched? According to sources on the US defense website, since the Indian Air Force obtained the Rafale fighters from France, Pakistan made a request to China to deliver the first batch of 30 J-10 fighters as soon as possible. In fact, there has long been news that Pakistan intends to buy the J-10 fighter. In addition, the relevant media in Pakistan also issued an article saying: "Please look forward to it!" The picture just happened to be the J-10 of our country.
More than a dozen meters away, can the Cossack cavalry be blocked by just a volley and bayonet? What is the truth about the legend of the British Army's "Thin Red Line?
“俄国骑兵……冲向高地人，他们的马蹄下方尘土飞扬，每一步都在加速，径直冲向那条顶着钢线的纤细的红线条（the thin red streak topped with a line of steel）……等到他们迫近到150码（约137米）之内，端平的步枪打出又一轮致命的齐射，给俄国人带来死亡和恐惧，他们打马回转，向左右两侧散开队列，跑得比来时还快。”——拉塞尔《10月25日巴拉克拉瓦骑兵战》，1854年11月14日发表于《泰晤士报》
Editor's note: The Crimean War (a translation of the Crimean War, also known as the Eastern War) of 1853-1856 can be said to be the first feast for war reporters. At that time, thanks to technological advancement and media development, ordinary readers of major newspapers were finally able to understand the dynamics happening on the other side of the world in less than a month. The Times reporter Russell, The vivid descriptions of Morning Herald reporter Woods and New-York Daily Tribune writer Engels and others made the British infantry use the "thin red line." The thin red line)—that is, the thin two-column line—repelled the Russian cavalry and became a classic battle case familiar to military enthusiasts on both sides of the Atlantic and even around the world.
However, careful readers will immediately notice that considerable differences have appeared in the two typical descriptions quoted in the previous article. The witness Russell clearly mentioned that the Russian cavalry was repulsed at a distance of 100 meters. His manuscript should reach 11 It was only published in major British newspapers on the 14th, but Engels in Manchester declared three days later that the Highland Regiment was using a "Scottish-style calm salvo" to beat the cavalry only ten meters away. retreat.
In fact, like many battles that have changed from history to legend, there are also countless distortions, exaggerations and interpretations behind the "thin red lines" that evolved from the "thin red lines". Engels' mistake may only be due to the fact that he missed the Arabic numeral 0, but the deviation of other people's reports is not so simple. This article will restore the real battle example.
▲Picture 1. William Russell, a pioneer war correspondent, was a well-drunk Irishman with limited military knowledge, but he was able to mingle with soldiers. He was also blacklisted by some senior British officers
▲Figure 2. Comparison of the original Russell report (top) and Engels' commentary (bottom)
Who is the protagonist? This is not a one-man show for Scottish Highlanders
First of all, out of courtesy, we should determine who is participating in the "Thin Red Line" media drama. This may seem unnecessary at first glance. As Robert Gibb's famous painting "The Thin Red Line" shows, countless artworks put the 93rd Highland Regiment under the spotlight. However, if we read Russell’s report carefully, we will find that the facts may be far more complicated than imagined.
▲Figure 3. "The Thin Red Line" by Robert Gibb, now in the Edinburgh National War Museum. This painting was created in 1881. It can be said to represent the general impression of the battle in British society in the second half of the 19th century, but it is so close The firefight of the distance is far from the real battle.
When the Russian cavalry pounced on the "slender red line", the first ones who opened fire were the blue soldiers on the left and right sides: this did not refer to the blue-clad French soldiers entwined with the red-clad British troops, but those The "Turks" who were first pushed out by the Russian army from the field fortifications to slaughter, and then barely lined up after being beaten and scolded by the British army. Maj. Gen. Colin Campbell, commander of the British Highland Brigade, who was fairly kind, mentioned in the battle report that the "Turkish" defender of Multifaceted Fort No. 1 first tried their best to resist for a long time, and then suffered heavy casualties in the pursuit of the Russian army. The defenders of the No. 2, 3, and 4 multifaceted fortresses also retreated after nailing the artillery gates, and overall their performance was fairly good.
Russell believed that the Turkish soldiers "started a salvo when they were 800 yards apart, then turned and ran." However, Blackett, the captain of the 93rd Highland Regiment, was more fair than the reporter. In his home book, he stated that although the Turks ran away when they saw the cavalry, they were then sent back to the queue by the British officers. It's no wonder that the second lieutenant Fisher-Rowe, who doesn't speak virtuously, scolds his allies: "Compared to these Turkish dogs, Russians are considered angels!"
In fact, the poor soldiers of the Ottoman Empire may not even be regarded as Turks. A large part of them actually came from Tunisia, the northern African possession of the Empire, where slavery was abolished in the 1840s, and subsequently, a large number of black slaves flocked. Into the army. Tunisian soldiers are seriously inadequate in training, equipment, salaries, and supplies. It is not easy for them to rely on fortifications to withstand the Russian army for one or two hours. Naturally, they should not be too demanding at this time.
▲Figure 4. Tunisian soldiers in the Crimean War
After this volley of thunder, heavy rain and small drops of rain, about 600 soldiers from the 93rd Highland Regiment appeared next. As its name suggests, the backbone of the regiment came from the Scottish Highlands. The author continues to quote Russell’s poetic original text, “When the Russian army advanced to 600 yards apart, the steel wire at the front was finally put down (referring to the soldier laying the bayonet flat), and a burst of Minier spears were fired. The sound of shooting in turn, but the distance is still too far, which can not stop the Russians... In the suffocating anxiety, everyone is waiting for the moment when the waves hit the Gaelic reef front."
▲Figure 5. At that time, the British army called the rifled gun that used Minier bullets (a translation of Minier bullets, Minier bullets) as Minier guns.
The Gaels, a collective term that includes Irish and Scottish Highlanders, not only conforms to Russell's style of writing, but also reveals the truth to a certain extent. As far as the British army is concerned, the ratio of the relatively martial Scots and the relatively poor Irishmen into the army is higher than the proportion of their population. Take the recruitment of soldiers in 1845-1849 as an example. Ireland still provided 33% of its soldiers with 30% of its paper population despite the massive outflow, and Scotland provided 15% of its soldiers with less than 10% of its population. !
▲Figure 6. The thin red line scene model, hidden in Stirling Castle
The great famine that occurred during this period not only caused millions of Irish people to live abroad, but also flooded the various regiments of the British Army with Irish soldiers who could not find a way out. Even in the 93rd Highland Regiment, where Scotland is more colorful, there are typical Irish soldiers like Francis Duffy. Duffy joined the army at the age of 18. After that, he not only participated in the Crimean War, but also went to South Asia to suppress the Indian mutiny. Then he transferred to the 65th Infantry Regiment and went to Oceania to join the Maori War. As a member of the "Thin Red Line", Duffy has won a total of three medals in these three wars. However, he paid for the birth and death of the British Empire for decades, but he only went to New Zealand to dig Kauri gum (1). A kind of fossilized gum that can be used for paint) survived, and eventually died alone in poverty. The autopsy report called it “the process of natural death was accelerated by the lack of necessary and commonly used daily necessities”.
▲Figure 7. A memorial statue of gumdigger in New Zealand. Gumdigger is a unique type of heavy manual labor in the local area. At the time, people generally believed that this kind of work was "the hardest in the world."
The tide hits the lonely city in the empty city-the Russian Cossack who accidentally became the protagonist of the villain
Opposite the "Gaelic Reef" is also an outlier of the imperial army: 3 centuries of the 53rd Don Cossack Regiment, with a total of less than 300 Cossacks. As irregular cavalry, the main value of the Cossacks is reflected in the level of battle. They are excellent scouts and excellent looters. They are good at entering the enemy’s rear to pursue and destroy, so that the Russian folks have a proverb: The Cossacks passed by. There is no cock crowing in the place. On the tactical level, although Cossacks are good at skirmishes and single-handed combat, they rarely fight hard and hardly take the initiative to attack the dense infantry formations.
▲Figure 8. With the popularity of firearms, Cossack cavalry also often dismount to start skirmishes
According to the order of General Липранди, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army at the Battle of Balaklava, the mission of the Don Cossacks was actually only to search for the enemy in the front left of the Russian army. The regiment formed a sparse column with a width of only six people, making a terrible "Wula" roar, and quickly advanced like a group of geese to a distance of about 700 meters from the British-Turkish infantry. Such a formation undoubtedly made Captain Blackett frightened, so much so that in his home book he actually exaggerated the 3 centuries (the Cossack centuries' strength is basically equivalent to the regular cavalry squadron) into 12-14 powerful cavalry squadrons! Campbell was very knowledgeable, and in the battle report he only filled the Cossack regiment into 400 cavalry.
▲Picture 9. The old photo published by Colonel Krenkoowski in 1904 shows the scene of the "thin red line" from the perspective of the Cossacks. The British and Turkish infantry are located on the hills in the distance.
As the black and overwhelming Cossack cavalry column gets closer, the psychological pressure on the infantry is increasing. Finally, the remnants of the Turkish army who had been hidden on the back slope got up and opened fire, and then the British army also fired. This allowed the Cossacks to detect the location of the British infantry at a very slight price-in other words, Russell. The first two rounds of "volleys" in the article were not only as effective as shooting in the sky, but also exposed one's own strength.
▲Figure 10. The 12th Infantry Division Commander Liplandy of the Russian Army, he is one of the few Russian generals who have made great achievements and gained fame in the Crimean War.
As Russell’s most capable counterpart, "Morning News" reporter Nicholas Woods is also quite skeptical of the shooting effect. According to him, "The highlanders and the Turks shot volleys at such a distance, obviously without effect. ". Captain Blackett’s family letter is more professional than the two major reporters. He pointed out that the British army always took turns to shoot, that is to say, the "volley" rounds are just the division of stages that reporters want to facilitate readers’ understanding.
▲Figure 11. British Highland Brigade Commander Campbell, nicknamed "Victoria's Scottish Lion"
Blackett mentioned that the firing at 500 yards only caused a small number of Russian cavalry to fall, while other cavalry soon continued to brave slightly violent firepower to advance to about 300 yards from the British infantry team, and then suddenly turned to the left. On the side, intending to outflank the right wing of the British army. As we all know, although the frontal firepower of the infantry formation is strong, the defensive ability of the side and rear is quite low. Seeing this, Campbell admired on the spot, "That guy (Cossack leader Alexandrov) really knows how to do it!"
▲Figure 12. Balaklava engagement situation map, the green is the Russian army, the red is the British, French and Turkish forces
However, Campbell, who fought hard on the peninsula battlefield, is not an ordinary person. Although he did not gather the horizontal team into a hollow square or a solid square (closed column), he immediately ordered the grenadier company on the far right. The left shoulder and left foot are forward, forming a tendency to shoot diagonally to the right and forward. The approaching Cossack felt the firepower of the grenadier company and immediately retreated. Although Russell exaggeratedly believed that "the flat rifle fired another deadly volley, bringing death and fear to the Russians," Woods unceremoniously pointed out that "the second round of the highlander's volley after standing still. The same lack of obvious results as in the first round...the enemy cavalry obviously has no intention of attacking the Highlanders."
As a result, the famous "thin red line" in military history ended plainly. Regarding the battle itself, the most concise and clear conclusion came from the well-known British and Russian "A History of Cavalry" (A History of Cavalry) author George Taylor ·The mouth of Lieutenant Colonel George Taylor Denison:
▲Figure 13. Denison uniform photo
"Many people-especially many English writers-regard this battle as a great victory for the infantry to defeat the cavalry, but it is actually instructive. A famous English cavalry officer on the scene clearly pointed out to the author, The Russian cavalry squadron had no motivation to attack at the time. It just wanted to use feints to force the coalition to expose the deployment situation. When the 93rd regiment set up a horizontal squad on the mountain, the cavalry had completed the goal and retreated. Sir Colin Campbell is an experienced Soldier, he knew exactly what the cavalry was going to do, and made corresponding arrangements."
Therefore, in the battle, there was neither close combat between cavalry and infantry, nor was there a situation where infantry relied on the new rifled gun to slaughter the cavalry. Although the high-level British and Russian troops in the Crimean War were criticized by countless people, in terms of the situation of the battle between the horses in Balaklava, whether it was Highland Brigade Commander Campbell or Cossack Commander Alexandre Александров (Александров), made the right choice, and let most of his soldiers retreat.
▲Figure 14. The "thin red line" scene imagined by French newspapers in the 19th century
However, successful operations that are properly managed in war are mostly boring. Compared with completing tasks naturally, rationally, and organized, heroic, reckless, and crazy mistakes can arouse the interest of readers (especially amateur readers). As a result, as many rearers added fuel and vinegar, this insignificant short-term battle quickly escalated into a momentary infantry confrontation, and was even regarded as a classic case of infantry defeating cavalry at close range. The myth of the "thin red line" has since become an enduring talk.
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Brighton, Terry,Hell Riders: The Truth About the Charge of the Light Brigade (London: 2004)
Denison, George Taylor,A History of Cavalry: From the Earliest Times with Lessons for the Future (London: 1877)
Fletcher, Ian & Ishchenko, Natalia,The Crimean War: A Clash of Empires (Staplehurst: 2004)
Grehan, John,The Charge of the Light Brigade: History's Most Famous Cavalry Charge Told Through Eye Witness Accounts, Newspaper Reports, Memoirs and Diaries (Barnsley: 2017)
Hibbert, Christopher,The Destruction of Lord Raglan: A Tragedy of the Crimean War, 1854-55 (London: 1961)
Klembowsky W., Vues des champs de bataille de la campagne de Crimée 1854-1855 (St-Pétersbourg: 1904)
Selby, John,Balaclava: Gentlemen's Battle (New York: 1970)
Woods, Nicholas Augustus, The Past Campaign: A Sketch of the War in the East, from the Departure of Lord Raglan to the Capture of Sevastopol (London: 1855)
Ченнык, С.В. Крымская кампания 1854-1856 гг. Восточной войны 1853-1856 гг. (Севастополь: 2014)
This article is the original manuscript of the Cold Weapon Research Institute, the editor-in-chief, and the author Wu Tian. Any media or official account may not be reproduced without written authorization. Violators will be held liable. Some pictures are from the Internet. If you have any copyright issues, please contact us.
The tragedy at Kabul Airport shocked the world! The Pentagon said...
US military aircraft evacuated in a hurry from Afghanistan
After taking off from Kabul International Airport
The video records a tragic and terrifying scene
Someone fell from the landing gear of the plane
Shocked the world
The US Department of Defense said
The distance is too far, it's not clear yet
US military plane taxied to take off in the crowd
The remains of the victims were found on the landing gear
On the 16th, after the Taliban entered Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, the local situation gradually returned to stability, but at the Kabul International Airport where the US troops evacuated, the scene was chaotic.
According to Afghan media reports, thousands of people flocked to Kabul International Airport that day and tried to board a plane to leave Afghanistan.
Among them, the scene of a US military C-17 transport plane forcibly taking off regardless of the crowd gathering on the scene, announced by the media, has attracted much attention.
The screen showed a US military plane taxiing to take off among the running crowd. After the US military plane took off, someone fell from the aircraft's landing gear.
According to media reports, locals found the bodies of three victims near the airport.
According to reports by the US "Washington Post" and other media, the US military transport plane was diverted and landed in a third country near Afghanistan due to a faulty landing gear. Later, the remains of the victims were found on the landing gear of the plane. The report did not mention which country it was.
In addition, according to reports in many Afghan media, when people flooded into the airport, the United States and other multinational troops were evacuating their own personnel. US soldiers fired shots to the sky in an attempt to disperse the people, triggering a large- scale stampede. The chaos at Kabul International Airport lasted from the evening of the 15th to the 16th, resulting in at least 10 deaths.
The US Air Force confirmed the discovery of the remains
Investigation into the grounding of the military aircraft involved has been launched
On the 16th local time in the United States, in response to questions related to Kabul International Airport, the Pentagon denied that the chaotic evacuation was a "failure."
When asked about someone falling from a US military plane, John Kirby, a spokesperson for the US Department of Defense, responded that he did not have more precise information because the distance was too far. "Obviously, from 8,000 miles away, I want to fully understand What happened there is very difficult."
On the 17th, the US Air Force issued a statement confirming that there were human remains on the landing gear of an aircraft evacuated from Kabul International Airport. The aircraft is currently undergoing inspection at Udeid Air Force Base in Qatar.
The statement stated that the transport plane has been temporarily grounded to clean up the wreckage and the plane will also be inspected before it goes around. Investigation of related incidents has begun.
Scene from Kabul Airport
Collapse the illusion of American narrative
Regarding the tragic scene at Kabul International Airport, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Zakharova said that the news reported by the Afghan media was shocking.
Zakharova also said that when Afghans asked for help from the United States, the response they got was "silence." At this time, no one cared about the so-called "human rights" issue anymore.
The Russian TV Today website published a commentary by Serbian-American journalist Nebojsa Malic.
The article is titled "Compared with the military field, the American narrative driven by the US government and the media has suffered a greater failure in Afghanistan-now the whole world knows what the emperor's new clothes are."
The article said that when talking about Saigon in 1975, people always think of some South Vietnamese people trying to squeeze into a helicopter. In Kabul in 2021, the most similar scenario is that a desperate Afghan tried to climb a U.S. military plane, but fell to his death.
Former Vice President of Afghanistan proclaims himself "Interim President": never bow to the Taliban
The Pajwak News Agency of Afghanistan reported on August 17 that Amrullah Saleh, the former first vice president of the Ghani government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, declared himself the "interim president" of Afghanistan on the same day.
Amrullah Saleh said on social media that according to the Constitution of Afghanistan (Islamic Republic), the vice president will become the interim president in the absence, escape, resignation or death of the president. "I am currently in our country and I am a legitimate interim president. I am in contact with all leaders to ensure their support and consistency."
Amrullah Saleh (pictured from Pajwak News Agency)
On August 15, on the day the Taliban occupied Kabul, Amrullah Saleh posted on social media, claiming that he "will never, never bow to the Taliban, and never betray Ahmed Shah." · Masood, will never be under the same roof with the Taliban".
He also tweeted to call on Afghans to "join the resistance movement" and also said that "we Afghans must prove that Afghanistan is not Vietnam."
According to information posted on social media by BBC host Yalda Hakim on August 16, after the Taliban occupied Kabul, Amrullah Saleh did not seem to have fled like former President Ghani. Going abroad, he went to the Panjshir valley north of Kabul to meet with Ahmad Massoud.
"An anti-Taliban alliance seems to be forming." Yada Hakim wrote at the time.
Ahmed Masood is 32 years old and is the son of Ahmed Shah Masood, nicknamed "Lion of Panjshir", the former Tajik military leader of Afghanistan. Ahmed Shah Massoud was a member of the "Northern Alliance" in Afghanistan and an important force against the Taliban in Afghanistan at that time. Ahmed Shah Massoud was assassinated by Al-Qaeda in September 2001 and was posthumously awarded as an "Afghan national hero" by the new government after the fall of the Taliban regime.
The Panjshir Valley is located about 150 kilometers north of Kabul. It is the largest Tajik settlement in Afghanistan and is currently one of the few areas in Afghanistan that are not yet controlled by the Taliban.