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19 June, 2021

Confucianism | National Geographic Society

Confucianism | National Geographic Society

Confucianism is an ancient Chinese belief system, which focuses on the importance of personal ethics and morality. ... Confucianism is a philosophy and belief system from ancient China, which laid the foundation for much of Chinese culture. Confucius was a philosopher and teacher who lived from 551 to 479 B.C.E.


CONFUCIUS

- Concept .

- Origins of Confucianism.

- Principles of Confucianism.

- Confucian doctrine:

+ Lower school.

+ Upper School.

- The philosophy of Confucianism:

+ Human life.

+  Cosmic view.

- Classics.

- Biography of Confucius.

- The Tribes.

- Education.

- Vietnamese Confucianism through dynasties.

- Conclusion.

Concepts

NHO: according to Chinese characters, combined with Nhan and Nhu characters . Humanity is human, Nhuis necessary.

Grapes are the kind of people who are always needed to help people in society to know how to live in harmony with human hearts and God's reason. The word Nhu also means waiting, that is, intellectuals wait for people to call, then bring their talents to help the world.

Thus, Confucianists are those who learn the doctrines of Saint Hien, know the truths of Heaven, Earth and Humans, in order to guide people on how to live and behave in accordance with the Dao of Heaven and the human heart. The book Phap Ngon has a sentence: " Thong Thien Dinh Dia writes Confucianism ". Meaning: The person who knows both Astronomy and Geography is called Confucianism. All Confucianists specialize in practical application, not on ideals. Therefore, from the past to the present, they are the people who are ready to enter the world, shoulder the world's work, benefit the country and benefit the people, different from the Buddhist or Taoist monks, who only know how to enter the world, take care of the good. strange body.

TEACHING: Teaching, religion, a relationship.

Confucianism is a religion or a systematic and methodical doctrine that teaches about Humanity, that is, teaches about morality as a person in the family and in society. The system of Confucianism is according to the doctrine: " Heaven, Earth, and everything is one" , that is, Heaven and Earth and all things are one. The method of Confucianism is the method of proof, taking the circulation of Thien Ly as the basis. Thus, the doctrine of Confucianism has three essential things:

- About Belief : Always believe that Thien Nhan is evil , that is: Heaven and Man are related to each other.

- About Practice : Take the empirical evidence as the main focus.

- About Intelligence : Using intuition as a gift to illuminate and understand things.

If anyone has thoroughly understood the principles of Confucianism, they will all recognize Confucianism as a very intelligent religion of mankind, which has been promoted since ancient times. Although it is not fully implemented, and many people misunderstand it, those who have embraced this spirit have also acquired a special dignity.

Origins of Confucianism

Confucianism originated in ancient times in China. At that time, King Phuc Hy, an enlightened Holy King, saw phenomena in the realm of the Void. He saw Long Ma with a picture on his back consisting of black and white dots, floating in the middle of the Yellow River, knowing the truth of Yin and Yang, inventing Tien Thien Ba Quai, explaining the transformation of Heaven and Earth as a teaching principle. people. The simple lines of the Bagua are considered to be the clues of later writing.

King Phuc Hy also taught the people to raise animals to command, make nets for fishing, raise silkworms to make clothes, make lutes and harps, teach people to be righteous, marry and give in marriage (using a pair of animal skins). ceremony, because in the mermaids period, animal skin was precious), hence the name clan. Later, during the reign of Emperor Hoang De (Hien Vien Huynh De), he invented a robe and ordered Ong Thuong Hiet to invent writing.

That was the beginning of Confucianism, formed by the combination of reality with the mystery of Heaven and Earth. Confucianism takes the Tao of Heaven as a model, teaches people to obey God, but who opposes God, they must die. Confucianism has helped ancient China to be at peace, the people above and below are at peace, creating a moral foundation with a solid foundation. Following the Zhou Dynasty, King Van Vuong and his son Chau Cong Dan continued to expand Confucianism, interpreting the I Ching handed down by Fuxi, and systematizing rituals and sacrifices.

At the end of the Zhou Dynasty, during the reign of King Linh Vuong, in 551 BC, Confucius was born. Confucius corrected and sanctioned the scriptures, revived Confucianism, forming a coherent, systematic doctrine worthy of being equal to Taoism and Buddhism. Confucius is considered the leader of Confucianism.

Confucianism, since the revival of Confucius, was followed by saints such as Tu Tu, Mencius, promoted to a brilliant level, and then gradually declined over time, because there was no such talent continued to be praised, eventually becoming a subject from the chapter for the martyrs climbing the eunuch road. The essence of Confucianism has been buried and Confucianism is misused according to the will of ordinary people.

Principles of Confucianism

The principles of Confucianism include:

- Heaven and Earth All things are identical.

- Trung Dung.

Heaven and Earth All things are identical

According to the Confucian concept, Humans are born with the innate logic and air of Heaven and Earth, that is, with Heaven and Earth, they can interact and correspond with each other. That sympathy is always there, but when we let our lusts rise strongly, only calculating to benefit ourselves, the spirit is disturbed, the intuition becomes dark, so The feeling we don't know.

But if we know how to suppress our lusts and keep a harmonious attitude at all times, then our intuition becomes wise and we know the profound and mysterious things, that is, we can sympathize with God. God gave birth to man and all things, so what God has, man has, so it is called Great Heaven and Earth, and man is Little Heaven and Earth. God and humans are the same, so it is natural that they should interact with each other.

The universe and all things always change according to the harmony and relativity, circulating forever without stopping. If Heaven is not fixed, what is fixed in life? So we can act at any time, as long as we maintain harmony and integrity. Whatever you do, you must take Trung Dung as the basis, that is, neither excessive nor inadequate, always in line with the Neutral Way of Heaven and Earth.

Confucius took that principle to establish a philosophy of life, that is, a very gentle and gentle morality, making people live comfortably and happily, without sadness and fear. The things: Hieu, Nghia, Trung, and Faith, all of which come from that.

Doctrine of Confucianism

The doctrine of Confucianism is summed up in the following three things:

- The transformation of the universe is related to the destiny of mankind.

- Moral ethics in social life.

- Music Festival in the sacrifice of Heaven and Earth, Devil God and Ancestors.

Those are the basic things that define a religion's view of life and cosmology. Therefore, we can say that, before the time of Confucius, it was only Confucianism, but after Confucius's time, Confucianism was fully learned by him, becoming a true religion, called Confucianism, like Buddhism. Taoism, Taoism, or Christianity.

From a religious perspective, the doctrine of Confucianism is divided into two distinct parts:

- Lower school.

- Upper School.

Lower School

Lower education is the study belonging to the Lower Vehicle, which forms the basis for the Upper Vehicle, is the specific study of things related to people's lives in a practical way. Mainly Lower School is teaching about Humanities. There is no religion that teaches humanity more thoroughly and deeply than Confucianism. Here are some key points:

- Soldier, Little Man.

- Cultivate yourself.

- Justice, Charity.

- Music Festival.

- The very name of destiny.

Gentleman - Small man

Confucianism divides people in society into two classes: Gentleman and Minor.

- A  gentleman is a person who has perfect virtue, noble dignity, takes care of the Saint Hien Dao to correct himself, even if he is poor, he does not do any wrongdoing.

-  The petty person is the complete opposite, the petty person has a vile spirit, greed for fame and gain, speaks benevolently but in his heart calculates inhumanity, although rich, his spirit is still vile.

The Gentleman always obeys Thien Ly, so his disposition is clear, he likes to do righteous deeds, and becomes more and more noble; Small people always follow human desires, low morale, so they are always wronged by things, only knowing their own benefits, becoming more and more despicable.

The gentleman is neutral because he understands the low and the high, the small man is anti-middle because he only knows self-interest. A gentleman only asks for himself, so his virtue is getting brighter and brighter; Small people want from people, so their lust becomes more and more loose. Learning to be a gentleman is to be honest, never lie to yourself and harm your knowledge.

If you want to learn and achieve the Way of the Gentleman, you must follow the words of Confucius: "Put faith in, love to learn, hold on to it, even if you die, it won't change, make the Tao better. Not entering the country is dangerous, not in the country there is turmoil In a life of Dao, one goes out to do everything, in a life without Tao, he hides and corrects himself. A country with a Dao that is poor and cowardly is shameful; In a non-religious country where we are rich and rich, we are ashamed.”

Cultivate yourself

The Gentleman needs to learn all the time in order to know how to correct himself. If you want to correct yourself (Turning yourself), you must first keep the Mind for yourself, the Intention for success, and then the Way of Things and Tri Tri. Therefore, Confucianism gives the Eight Articles of Mut, i.e. 8 steps of practice in the following order:

-  Way of objects: Isolate things to observe clearly.

-  Wisdom: Research to know the root of things.

-  Sincerity : Train the will to be honest and brave.

-  The Center: Purification of the soul to escape the pollution of character education.

Self -  cultivation: Correct your mistakes.

- Family: Arrange family affairs properly.

-  Rule the country: Rule the people in the right way.

-  Binh Thien Ha: Bringing peace and happiness to the whole people.

+ Father and son: The father-son relationship , parents must be gentle, full of love for their children, and children must be filial to their parents.

+ Bride and groom: The relationship between husband and wife. N Ghia is: export price subtotal, total death wife . When a woman gets married, she serves her husband; when her husband dies, she is a virtuous person to raise children there.

- Ngu Thuong: Five common things: Humanity, Righteousness, Ceremony, Tri, and Faith.

+ Humanity: Love for people who love animals.

+ Meaning: The right treatment, gratitude towards people and things.

+ Ceremony: Show respect and order in thoughts, words and deeds.

+ Wisdom: Understanding, discerning right and wrong.

+ Credit: Do not lie or deceive.

- Tam Tong: Three things that a woman must follow: At home, she must obey her father, get married, and obey her husband.

+ At home, auxiliary disciple: At home, listen to your parents' words.

+ Ex- marriage : If you have a husband, you must obey your husband.

+ The husband's son and son- in-law : If the husband dies, he will stay there to raise the children, so he should not remarry.

- Four virtues: Four virtues of a woman: Cong, Dung, Ngon, and Hanh.

+ Work: Take care of household chores.

+ Dung: Take care of the body for good, clean.

+ Language: Gentle, righteous speech.

+ Hanh: Straightforward, benevolent in everything.

Justice - Charity

People are born into the world, everyone is innate with the same logic and air of Heaven and Earth, so they all have the same destiny. As such, everyone is equal and brother to each other. One day, Tzu-kung asked Confucius:  Is there a word that can be enforced for life? Confucius replied  , "Wow! Academic departments century estate, exam materials U's. (Letter! What you don't want, don't do to others.) That is Justice and Charity. It is in Confucius's Dao of Unity: Taoism.

Music Festival

- Ceremony

Confucianism uses Ritual to form a custom of Ritual, making people do good and right naturally, without thinking. Using ritual has the advantage of preventing bad things from happening, and using law is to treat bad things that have happened. Therefore, the Saint honors the Feast, not the Punishment.

The word ceremony is first used with the meaning of forms of sacrifice to God for blessings and sacrifices to ancestors. After that, the word Le was used to include rules suitable to the customs and practices of the people in Quan, Hon, Tang, and Te. After that, the word Le also has a very broad meaning, including the king's authority and the way to restrain the behavior of the people to suit the natural logic of Heaven and Earth. That's why the Confucian rites say: "Pseudo- rites , Thien chi letters." Meaning: Ceremony is the order of God. Therefore, Confucianism pays great attention to the ceremony, and uses the ceremony for four purposes:

+ Use Mass to nurture human character

Using Mass to create a dignified moral atmosphere, gradually turned into a good custom, causing people to do right and good things spontaneously without knowing it. So thanks to the Mass, people are aroused with good and noble feelings.

+ Use the ceremony to keep it in line with Trung Dung's religion

Not for excess, but also not for inadequacy. As a result, human body and spirit are balanced, actions are always lucid and moderate. Confucius said that the teacher Nhan Uyen (Nhan Hoi) was a person who understood the Way of Humanity better than others because of the ceremony. “No visual offerings, no hearing offerings, no speech offerings, no animal offerings.” Meaning: If it's not a ceremony, don't look, if it's not a ceremony, don't listen, if it's not a ceremony, don't say it, if it's not a ceremony, don't do it.

+ Use Mass to determine right and wrong, sisterhood, and order from above and below

Thanks to Mass, it is possible to distinguish between the relatives of the nuns, the small ones and the adults, because the ceremony prescribes distinctly different treatment. Therefore, there is no room for doubt, defining right and wrong. Thanks to the ceremony, the righteous name is determined. There is a new name that determines the proper fate. Therefore, there is hierarchical order, moral rules, from family to society, creating an orderly and peaceful society.

+ Use Mass to restrain lust

Human desires are not constant and always require to be satisfied. If we do not use Mass to reduce, all desires will corrupt people. Use Mass to reduce but also guide lust into the noble path. The ceremony and the Law both have the purpose of preventing human corruption and sin. But the Feast has the advantage that it can prevent things that haven't happened yet; The law is used to punish crimes that have already happened. The law, although it must be laid down, but using the teaching of rituals to prevent crime is preeminent.

In short, the word ceremony in the broad sense includes legal nature. But the Mass focuses on teaching and preventing corruption; while the law focuses on punishing the bad and the guilty. Ceremonies teach people what to do, what not to do, and why. As for the law, it is forbidden to do this or that, but if you violate it, you will be punished. Those who violate the ceremony are ridiculed and have spiritual punishment; Those who break the law will be punished physically.

- Music

Music is the harmony of sounds that create and express the vibe of the human heart in front of foreign objects. In other words, it is the vibrations in the heart that make music. Music has an important influence, so ancient emperors like King Thuan used Music to touch the people and make them honest. Books Music has written that: "Music is the pleasure of the Saints, which can make people's hearts become good, could feel his heart deeply moved and customs are. That's why the Immortal King set out to teach Music."

Music must also keep the Trung Dung way, no matter how happy you are, you will not lose the main point, but how sad you will not lose the harmony. Thus, new music can harmonize human temperament.

The combination of MUSIC and FESTIVAL

Music and ceremony both have the common purpose of correcting people's dispositions for righteousness and fostering pure affection, but each has its own way. Ritual consists in the reverence to keep order and clarity, Music is in the harmony that makes the temperament elegant. Therefore, if there is a ceremony, there must be music, if there is music, there must be a ceremony, so that one can complement the other to create a good harmony and a stable order in society. But Confucius said: " Human children are as inhuman as Le Ha? Humanity is as inhuman as Nhac Ha? “Meaning: If a person is not virtuous, how can he use Mass? People without virtue, how can they use Music?

Confucius also advocated not leaning towards Le, nor leaning towards Music: "Music conquers indiscriminately, Ceremony conquers separation. Matching temperament, clothing and appearance is the work of Le Nhac”. Le Nhac has a very important position in the governance of the country and is on a par with Administrative and Criminal Law. Ceremony to direct the will, Music to harmonize the sound, Administration to unify actions, Criminal law to prevent crime. Ceremonies, Music, Administration, and Law all have the same ultimate goal, that is, unifying the hearts of the people in order to realize a rulership.”

The intention of Confucius and the ancient Saints to use this sublime Music Festival, but gradually, from generation to generation, Music and Ritual changed according to the love of the world and became wrong. Ceremonies turn into more trouble without keeping Respect as the root, Music turns into all kinds of things without keeping Harmony as the root. People are not guided and controlled by Music and Ritual, so they have been attracted by material desires to lowly places and are entering the abyss.

"Irregular names, unconventional speeches, and non-conforming speeches that fail." Meaning: If the name is not right, the word will not go forward, if the word is not right, the job will not succeed. If the name is right, everything has a clear meaning of it, heresies do not obscure the truth. Name and Fate have been defined, each person has his or her rightful position and duty, and orderly distinction.

Upper School

The Upper School belongs to the Mahayana or the Upper Vehicle, It is a Confucian conception of the worldview , very erudite and noble, which Confucius has many things clearly stated in the I Ching (basic book on the philosophy of Confucianism) and in the book Trung Dung (philosophy book about Thien Dao and Humanity very deeply).

Here are some highlights:

- Tai Chi and the transformation of Thien Ly.

- Mandate of heaven.

- Demon God.

- Soul.

- The Way of Confucius.

4.2.1. Tai Chi and the transformation of Thien Ly

The Confucian view of the world view (the formation of the universe and all things) is described as follows: The beginning of the Universe was a mass of confusion. In that Chaos, there is a very powerful and wonderful Li called Tai Chi. But Tai Chi is extremely mysterious, we can't know it, but when we consider the change of things, we can predict the movement and purity of Tai Chi. Movement is Yang, purity is Yin. Yang reaches the extreme and turns into Yin; Yin goes to the extreme and turns into Yang. Those two yin and yang rotate relative to each other, harmonizing each other and transforming to give birth to heaven and earth and all things.

That is the point of the I Ching, because I Ching is transformation. In Heaven and Earth, nothing is unchanging, nothing is definite. All are transformed, rotated, circulated everywhere, but all arise from a single Li, Tai Chi. Only Tai Chi is absolute , everything is relative. Therefore, Confucius took the doctrine of " Heaven and Earth and all things are one " as the basis for the doctrine of Confucianism.

Mandate of heaven

Heaven is the Subject of the whole Universe and all things, so it has a secret power to control all the changes and rotations in the Universe to be harmonized. That is the Destiny of Heaven, that is, the Destiny of Heaven.

As a human being, one must know the destiny of God in order to live according to it and live righteously. But humans also have their own self-control to strengthen themselves, making our souls always wise, so that our actions are always in accordance with God's orders, no, we are weak and needy. wait for the network number. The book Trung Dung writes: "Heaven gave birth to all things, multiplying the resources of each thing to urge them to add. Therefore, what can be built should be built up, and if it is tilted, it will be ruined.”

Demode

Confucianism teaches people to believe in Heaven, believe in Heaven's Mandate, and of course believe in Devil Gods.

The sacrifice to the Devil is to show our respect, not to pray for our own blessings. Demon Gods are wise and upright, so they are not biased. If people follow what is righteous and do what is right, then there will be the Devil Spirit to protect them. If anyone is unjust, unjust, does wrongdoing, is guilty of God, even if he prays and sacrifices all year round, it won't do any good. " Planning sin, Thien, there is no point in reversing the knife " (If it's a sin against God, where can you pray).

We are living people, we believe and know that there is a Devil, but we cannot know the works of the Devil, so we should not say myths that cause superstition. " The people's affairs are meant to be, and the children are far away ." Meaning: The case is taken to do the right thing of people, and the Devil should respect that far away.

Souls

Confucius said: “ Human life has a spirit, a soul, and a soul. Qi, Soul, and Phach are born in harmony .” Meaning: People are born with Air, Soul, and Beat. Air, Soul, and Phach Hoi are called life.

If a person is born, there must be death. After death, the remains gradually disintegrated into the ground, and the ethereal Qi ascended into the space of clear and brilliant light. So, death is not the end, only the end of the form, but the ethereal Qi remains and ascends to the bright place in the universe. The Qi he is in a person is called the Mind. The mind is the spirit, the ray of light that God gives people to understand things. When we die, that ray of light returns to Heaven, and the physical body is destroyed. Because of that thought, I said: Born to die (Live to send waterfalls).

The Way of Confucius

Confucius based on the principles of change that harmonized Heaven and Earth and brought the thoughts and actions of previous sages to establish the Way to teach the world. In that Tao, all things transform into desires without harming each other, and all Taos are executed without conflict. Small virtues are as clear-cut as flowing river water, great virtues are gracious and extremely biochemical. Confucius said, “ Attacking other Taoists will only harm them .”

Confucius's way is to follow common sense, do what is right, and do what is wrong, in order to keep the mind clear, not to let lust make you dark. The Dao of Confucius does not use the work of the Devil and God to set up superstitions, not to deceive people's hearts with life and death. He only tried to take Nhan, Nghia, Le, Tri, Faith, Trung, Hieu, and Kinh as his common religion. His religion adheres to Thien Ly, brightens up the bright virtues, makes people more and more wise to goodwill ( University of the Way , at Minh Duc, at the New People, at the Goodwill only ). The Tao is not far from the human nature, if the followers of the Tao keep away from the human nature, it is not the Tao. (The Way cannot be forever human, human beings are far away from Dao children, it is impossible to violate the Dao).

In short, the Tao of Confucius teaches very well about Humanity. After being humane, only then can we get close to the Divine Way.

Philosophy of Confucianism

The philosophy of Confucianism belongs to the Upper School. In the following, we will see the Confucian conception of the Universe and Humanity, of God and man.

Confucian cosmology

The Confucian conception of the Universe is clearly stated in the I Ching, which explains the Universe based on the theory of Yin and Yang and the Five Elements. "Translation and friendship of Tai Chi, students of Duong Nghi, Duoc Nghi give birth to Four Statues, Four Statues give birth to Ba Quai." Dao Di has Tai Chi, Tai Chi gives birth to Two Nghi: Nghi Yin and Nghi Yang; Hai Nghi gave birth to Four Statues: Thai Yin, Thai Duong, Thieu Yin, and Thieu Duong; Four Statues give birth to the Eight Hexagrams: Can, Kham, Can, Chan, Ton, Ly, Khon, Doai.

Bagua figure

“In the first place, how was the Universe? Just like the ideas of the ancients, at first the universe was just a mass of chaos, that is, the Chaos period. In that Chaos, there was an invisible Ly, very magical, very strong, called Tai Chi. But Tai Chi is extremely mysterious, it is impossible to know what the essence of that Li is. Although we do not know the true nature and truth of that Ly, we can watch the change of things and know the dynamics of that Ly. The dynamic body of that Ly was discovered by two different bodies: Dynamic and Static. Dynamic is Yang, Static is Yin. To the extreme, it turns into Yin; When Yin reaches the extreme, it turns into Yang again. These two bodies follow each other, and then are relatively in harmony with each other to transform and give birth to Heaven and Earth and all things.

So, the beginning of the Creator is due to the two relativities Yin and Yang, but the Dao of Heaven and Earth also begins with the transformation of those two relativities. In front of these two relative things, nothing is the same as nothing, because it's okay to know. When those two relativities have been discovered, everything is obvious and cannot be said to be impossible." (Excerpt from Confucianism by Tran Trong Kim).

According to this concept, the Dao of Heaven and Earth was very simple at first, then gradually changed to a complex place, the more it changed, the more complicated it became. That is the " least four clerical canopy", which was least four Taiji, but where the oil complex, and finally reduced to one, namely " clerical duties required most ." Confucius thought that Ly Tai Chi was very mysterious and mysterious, but human knowledge at that time was difficult to reach, so he did not pay attention to it, but only focused on its movement, that is, the Law of Transformation of God. Heaven and Earth, ie Law of Translation. He saw that Dao Yi governs all things, in accordance with reality. “The translation is not far from the truth, but the Yi Dao changes all the time, does not stay in a certain place, and circulates throughout the universe.”

Abandoning the essence and studying the body of Li Taiji is a very practical concept, and it is also the starting point for the Confucianism theory.

Confucianism's view of life

He is the beloved child of God. The Book of Thuong Thu says: Only Heaven and Earth are the parents of all things, among all things, He is the most spiritual. He is a son of God but also a people of God, the king is the one who replaces the sun to rule over all peoples. Therefore, in Confucian books, the word " people" isoften used to replace the word " Human ".

Man and God are one body. ( Heaven and Earth People are identical .). Dong Trong Thu wrote: "Nothing is more sophisticated than Yin and Yang, richer than Earth, more divine than Heaven, and the essence of Heaven and Earth to give birth to all things is nothing more precious than Him. Humans receive God's orders, so they are more supernatural than all things. All creatures fear calamity and cannot exercise benevolence, only He is capable of doing benevolent things. All animals are afraid of calamity, so they cannot compete with Heaven and Earth, only human beings can compete with Heaven and Earth.

A person with 360 periods is comparable to the number of Heaven, and his flesh and blood body is comparable to that of the Earth. Above, there are intelligent eyes and ears, the image of the sun and moon. The body has an open door, has a coherent, image of rivers and valleys. The heart has love and joy, joy and anger, the same type as the Spirit. All animals rely on Heaven's Yin-Yang Qi to live, but only He shines brightly with God's writings. Therefore, there is nothing in the world that manifests itself that does not obey God's command, but in the position of refuge, only He who stands up directly to Heaven should be worthy of God. Therefore, if you receive a little from Heaven and Earth, you will be in a dependent position, and if you receive a lot from Heaven and Earth, you will be in a rightful position. It is here that humans are isolated from all things but covetous with Heaven and Earth.

Therefore, his body has a wide and round head, imagining the content of Heaven; hair in the form of stars; alert eyes and eyes image of the moon and the sun; nose mouth breathing represents wind and air; in the belly reached the understanding of the image of God, the abdomen was full of images of all things. Symbolizing Heaven and Earth, the relationship of Yin and Yang is often found in the human body. Human body is like Heaven, covetously compatible with the number of Heaven, so they are related to Heaven by life.

God took the number of days in a year to form his body, so the 360 ​​small periods correspond to the number of days, the large 12 parts correspond to the number of months. Inside there are 5 organs of greed associated with the number of the Five Elements. Outside, there are Tu Chi (2 arms and 2 legs) associated with the 4 seasons. Suddenly I saw that suddenly opening greed with day and night, suddenly snakes suddenly softened with greed in winter and summer. Sudden pain, sudden joy in harmony with Yin and Yang. The mind has calculated thinking, in accordance with the number of degrees. . . Where it can be counted, greed is associated with numbers, where it is uncountable, greed is associated with species. Here there is oneness on both sides, and there is only one union of Man with Heaven.” (Excerpt from Nhan Pho Thien Number, Phon Lo, Book 13, Dong Trong Thu).

Therefore, Heaven and Earth are Great Heaven and Earth, then He is Small Heaven and Earth; Heaven and Earth are the Great Universe, then Man is the Small Universe. The universe without Him is an incomplete universe, because the universe is a great harmony of the Three Talents (Heaven, Earth, and Human), but without one element, the harmony is no longer there. Heaven and Man have a close relationship with each other, that's why we take Heaven's natural rules as His model, take Thien Luan as Human Wheel, and take Thien Dao as Humane. Confucianism takes the will of the people to do the will of God, the wisdom of God appears in the wisdom of the people, the people's will is God's will. His insight is often lost due to the obscuring of his desires, so he cannot touch God.

Humans have two parts: One is a visible physical body, and an invisible part is endowed with Heaven and Earth. That invisible part is Ly Thai Chi, also called Than Minh, Tam or the magical ray of light (Spirit Light). When dead, the body is buried in the ground, decaying and disintegrating into earth (Earth), and the magical part flies up into a bright and bright space. So death is not the end, only the end of the physical form, and the quintessential Qi, the Spirit, returns to a bright place in the universe.That smart part in the person is called Tam. The mind is the Divine Intelligence in all things, the magical ray of light that God has given us to understand things. The universe exists because there is that ray of light, if not, even if it is, it will be the same. All things, thanks to that ray of light, know that there is and that there is a God. People have precious dignity because of the Heart. With the Mind, Heaven and Earth are clear, everything is flexible.

When people die, that ray of light returns to Heaven, and the physical body decays. Because of that ideal, the ancients said: " Binh wild, tu qui da o". Meaning: To live is to send it, to die is to return. In that sentence there is reincarnation. (According to Confucianism Tran Trong Kim).

Concept of God

“But we must know that Confucius' conception of Heaven or God is not the same as that of most people who imagine that Heaven or God is a being who has the same shape, feelings, and lusts as humans do. ta. Heaven or God is only an invisible, very magical, and very firm reason, but when it comes to determining how the change is, it can't be resisted no matter what" (Confucianism Tran tr. Kim). God is the king of the Universe, ruling over all things and humans. " Holy God, Lam Ha is overbearing, overseeing the Four directions, praying to the people for the desert ". God is very big, shines down very clearly, looks at the four directions to find the suffering of the people and help.

In Confucianism, God is Tai Chi, the only Creator, the creator of all things. " The ancestor of all things, the ancestors of all things, are not born. Poisonous Yin is not born, poison Yang is not born. Yin and Yang are evil, Heaven and Earth are greedy, naturally after birth. "Heaven is the ancestor of all things, all things without God cannot be born. Yin qi alone is not born, yang qi alone is not born. Yin and Yang joined together with Heaven and Earth, and then they were born.

Confucianism conceives that the king (Human Army) is the one who rules over the people on behalf of Heaven and seeks happiness for the people, so he is called Thien Son (Son of Heaven).

Classics of Confucianism

Before the time of Confucius, the Way of Thanh Hien was recorded in the books: Translation, Poetry, Letters, Rituals, and Music.

Confucius studied them, then he commented on the I Ching, edited the Liturgy and Music, edited the Book of Poetry, and finally, Confucius composed the Spring and Autumn Sutra.

After the death of Confucius, the books were more or less lost. During the reign of Qin Shi Huang, there was a burning of books and burial of students (the Confucian letter section), so there are not many Confucian scriptures left. During the Han Dynasty, Confucianism was revived. Han Cao To sent people to search for books, but could not find any intact books, especially Kinh Nhac lost most of it, only one celestial body remained, so it had to be put together in Kinh Le.

At present, although these books are slightly misleading, the post-Confucianists have collected and supported the Ngu Kinh, as follows:

1. The I Ching. 2. Kinh Thi.

3. The Book of Scripture. 4. Musical Liturgy.

5. Spring and Autumn Bible.

The books that were made by the disciples of Confucius after the time of Confucius consisted of four volumes, called the Four Books, which listed:

1. The Analects of Zeng Tzu.

2. University of Zeng Tzu.

3. Trung Dung of Tu Tu.

4. Mencius of Mencius.

6.1. Pentateuch

6.1.1. The I Ching

Economic and philosophical analysis of Confucianism (explanation) on the formation, arising, and development of the eternal circle. Confucianism has a destructive view (©m affirmation) that gives birth to a happy life, embroiders dozens of jobs, people in different ways, and every performance ® . OU sky is clear ®Thnh liªn vμ CÃ agency CNA VII sù cyclic transformation pitcher cursor, such a profile v × Mii CÃ " tracing sky is clear ." Because of that concept, Translation is the book that the ancients used to divination, consider the sand, and is a very sublime Physics book, explaining the changes of Heaven and Earth and the action of all things. Former Chinese people in ancient times believed that in Heaven and Earth, perhaps Yin and Yang, sometimes hidden, sometimes present, change unpredictably.

King Phuc Hy, receiving the Ha map, knew that the new Yin and Yang were drawn into 8 hexagrams called Tien Thien Ba Quai, and then overlapped those 8 hexagrams, creating 64 hexagrams, each with 6 dimes.

In the reign of King Ha Vo, thanks to the Lac letter, he set up Cuu Tru to represent the Bagua of Phuc Hy. The hexagrams of Phuc Hy are to draw Yin and Yang statues, and those of King Ha Vo are to calculate the Ngu Hanh numbers.

The hexagrams handed down from the time of King Phuc Hy were only drawn into hexagrams without any written explanation.

In the reign of King Van Vuong of the Chau Dynasty, when he was imprisoned in Du Ly, he studied the re-enactment of the Dich hexagrams, and devised the Hau Thien Ba Quai. He coined the   Interjection to explain the meaning of each hexagram. After that, King Van Vuong's son, Chau Cong Dan, studied the I Ching, then wrote the word Hao to explain each Hao in each hexagram.

But the study of Translation is the study of the transmission of the mind, only to be passed on from one person to another, so the words of Van Vuong's Favors and Chau Cong's Hao words explained very briefly, with many sentences and far-reaching meanings. floating sticky rice, it is difficult to understand. That is the I Ching before the time of Confucius, only that much.

Only in the reign of Confucius did he follow the words of Van Vuong and Hao from Chau Cong, and then took his experience and knowledge of practical personnel to explain more clearly, that is, he made the Thon. Stories and Statues of Stories . Solving the Statue of the whole hexagram is called Dai Tuong , solving the Statue of a Hao is called Tieu Tuong . Confucius was afraid that explaining this was not enough, he made more heavens: Tu Truyen, Van Ngon Truyen, Theory of Quai, Tu Quai Truyen, and Collected Tales, including all 10 heavens, collectively known as the Ten Wings or the Ten Wings. is Story . He took the meaning and divided the I Ching into two parts called Thuong Kinhand Ha Kinh.

- Thuong Kinh puts the Qian hexagram (heaven)  and the Kun hexagram (earth)  on its head, because Qian Kun is the edict of Yin and Yang, the ancestor of all things.

- In Ha Kinh, the Ham and Hang hexagrams are placed on the head, because these two hexagrams are the first clues of the male and female to form the husband and wife religion. Humanity thus flourished.

Since then, the I Ching has 2 Thien Kinh (Shang Kinh, Xia Kinh) and 10 Thien Truyen, a total of 12 heavens. In the Fairy Tales, Confucius clearly explained the profound meanings of the I Ching and promoted his erudite ideas about the Creator, special conceptions of the universe and all things. He founded a very sublime theory of Confucianism.

Confucius studied translation took a lot of effort. When he was old, he watched the I Ching 3 times to break the margins, to make the fairy tales, but he also said: "The Gia Nga book year is good enough to learn the Translation, it's possible not great." Meaning: If only we could have had a few more years to learn Translation completely, there wouldn't have been such a big mistake.

A set of books that the Saint had put so much effort into and thought was so difficult to understand, there are bound to be many wonderful thoughts in them. So, the I Ching that we have now has undergone the contributions of four saints: King Phuc Hy, King Van Vuong, Chau Cong Dan and Confucius.

Sutras

Kinh Thu is a set of books that contain the teachings of Dien, Mo, Huan, Cao, The, and Manh of my king, from the reign of King Yao, King of Thuan, to the reign of Dong Chau.

That book is a very valuable history, making it possible for posterity to know the ancients' thoughts on morality, regime and rules from generation to generation and understand the evolution of the Chinese nation.

But because the Kinh Thu was burned by the Qin Dynasty, it was only during the Han Dynasty that there was a doctor of the Qin Dynasty named Easter (some say it was his daughter) who memorized it, read it, and transcribed it. Later, in the country of Lu, he found in the wall of Confucius a volume of 25 sages written in ancient script. The verses of the Resurrection are transcribed, called the Golden Literature; Those found in the wall of Confucius' house are called Ancient Literature. Later, Kong An Quoc of the Eastern Han Dynasty, arranged both Kim Van and Ancient Literature to become the Kinh Thu that has been passed down to this day.

If you read the Kinh Thu, you will know the sketchy nature and literary style of the ancients. The acts and thoughts written in the scriptures all take the two words INTERESTING as the core.

Scriptures

Kinh Thi is a collection of books containing songs and folk songs, from the ancient times to the reign of King Binh Vuong of the Chau Dynasty. Ca is a rhyming song, used at the time of sacrifice or when there is a filial piety. Dao is an oral song of rural folk.

Watching the Book of Thieves, you know the temperaments, customs and politics of the kings and vassal states of China. As   Man Phong talks about the thrifty custom of the Min people; The guard talked about the lewd custom of the Ve people; Qin Feng is about the repentance of the Qin people. Dai Nha and Tieu Nha talk about the political rise and fall of the Chau dynasty.

Studying the Poetry is to cultivate character and to expand human knowledge. The Poetry has many meanings, but when you read this book, you must keep your heart for the sake of learning. Confucius said: " Three three hundred poems, one word of sacrifice: I have no evil. " That is to say: 300 articles in the Poetry, take one word to say the whole thing is: Do not think wrongly.

Prayers

The Ritual is a set of rituals that are written to foster good feelings, to keep order, large and small, and to abstain from sex. All human emotions that have nothing to nurture all the time gradually change or become bad.

Using Mass is meant to cultivate good feelings. People in society have things related to customs and religion. Without clear rules, the sacrifice, filial piety, joy, eating in the village, in the country will become a mess; the enmity turned out to be awkward.

Using Mass is to distinguish hierarchies, nuns, and to resolve doubts. People in the world, everyone has lust, if there are no rules to guard against, it often causes people to do unjust and unjust things. Using Mass is to sanction the right behavior.

To study Mass, it is necessary to understand the word " Irreverent ", which means that nothing is disrespectful. For myself, as well as for other people, always take the respect as the master. Without glasses, many rituals become useless literature. (According to Confucianism of Tran Trong Kim).

Spring and Autumn Scriptures

After Confucius published the Sutras, he began composing the Spring and Autumn Sutras to express all his Tao.

“The Spring and Autumn Sutras are books written by Confucius. He followed the style of history and wrote the story of the country of Lu, from Lu An Cong to Lo Ai Cong. In that book, both the affairs of the Zhou dynasty and the affairs of the vassal states were recorded. Visually, it is a chronicle, the words are abbreviated, in many places it seems to make no sense at all, but when it comes to the spirit, it is a philosophical book on the political path.

Mencius, who understood the Spring and Autumn Sutras well, said: "When the Book of Poetry is over, the Spring and Autumn Scriptures will be made later. The work in the book of Spring and Autumn is the work of Hoan Cong of the Qi state, Van Cong of the state of Jin, the literature in the book is history, meaning Confucius said: This is stealing. That is, he took the stories from the books of Jin, Chu, and Lu to express the meaning he wanted to reveal. During the Spring and Autumn period at that time, Chinese society was in chaos, the kings of the vassal countries did many tyrannical things and everyone wanted to encroach on the power of the Son of Heaven. He did not want to let his judgmental criticism touch the powerful people of his time, besides, his profound learning was the traditional learning, so he used the style of writing history to talk about the past to talk about the past. His will.

The Book of Chuang Tzu also says in the Underworld that: Spring and Autumn is the destiny of the world. (The book of Spring and Autumn is to talk about the name and fate).

So in the opinion of the sages of the Warring States period, the Spring and Autumn book is a book for the mind to transmit the great meaning of the name and the fate of morality and politics, not a history book as people often misunderstood. . The Book of Spring and Autumn has three meanings:

-   The name itself,

-   Identification,

-   Covered satire.

Confucius' intention was to honor the king of Chau, although at that time many vassal countries did not know the king of Chau, but he wrote at the beginning of the book: " Xuan Vuong Chinh Nguyet ", meaning: Spring, January, the king of the Chau dynasty, to show his intention to still accept the Chau dynasty as the ruler of the world. . . .

To read the Spring and Autumn Sutra, one must know the meaning and position of each word. Each letter is to determine who the evil people who own, as Emperor e die, burn the tape , tetrarch die, copy the royal , king usurper as the usurpation won to death it documented that big game, one a righteous If you die, you will write good letters , if you make a false official, you will copy the word death . Those who have a legitimate title should write down their position and name, and those who have an improper title, no matter what position they hold, only write a vulgar name.

His praise consists in the words He uses. Sometimes, because of a single word of criticism, it becomes an eternal bad name, a word of praise gets a heavenly fragrance. Therefore, the people behind the table of the Spring and Autumn Sutra said: "The first is to spend money, to honor the flowers; Self spent most caricatures, humiliating U Vietnamese government "means: A word Merit is honored as the son of King floral shirt gives a damn word they were guilty humiliation as ax hammer. Confucius saw the decline of the world, the confusion of the way, the rise of heresies, the many violences, the son killed the father, I killed the king, so he was afraid to make the Spring and Autumn Sutra to define the Government Owner in the Righteous Name, Fate, for the Ethic and for the clear reward and punishment.

The Book of Spring and Autumn is a book defining the monarchy. Confucius knew that in a country it was impossible not to have a monarchy, but he was afraid that those who hold the monarchy often abuse their power to do many atrocities. That's why he used the source of Yang Qi to dominate the affairs of Heaven, ruled by Heaven over kings and kings, and expressed it in a special way in the Spring and Autumn book to limit the right of the military man. But those who were kings and lords made it easy for a few people to understand that profound and transcendent reason, so he took such strange things as:

Solar eclipses, lunar eclipses, comets, earthquakes, etc. . . are obvious things to watch out for military personnel. He wanted those people to be afraid of these miracles, cultivate themselves soberly, and do benevolent things. Confucius was also afraid that people would not understand the meaning, so he said: " The false self is only in the Spring and Autumn period, and the sin of the false self is in the Spring and Autumn period. " That is, those who know me are only in the Spring and Autumn Sutra. Those who blame Me are also only in the Spring and Autumn Sutra.

Knowing Him is knowing that His heart is afraid of heresies, and more and more violence, so He shows a political method to change the chaos to rule and punish the cruel and evil people. Blaming Him is because they do not understand His intentions but think that He is taking over the work of the Son of Heaven, or suspecting that He uses strange things to fascinate people. Scholars should pay attention to understand the deep meaning and suffering of His Holiness in the book Spring and Autumn. Later, Han Confucianism often did not understand that profound part, focusing only on the theory of Yin and Yang, the Five Elements, causing superstition, which was wrong in the meaning in the book Spring and Autumn (According to Tran Confucianism). important Kim).

Confucian learning has many lofty ideals, but in a nutshell, it can be said that the study focuses on morality and ethics. The study advocates change and changes according to the time, the case of reality, and the fantasies outside of worldly activities are not discussed. To see what it is like to teach about such learning, we have to look at the Four Books, which are the four books that the disciples of Confucius put their whole heart into.

University

University book is a book that teaches adults, aged 15 years and over, when they have entered university, teaches them how to live in life to shoulder the burden of national affairs. According to Confucianists, the University book was created by Zeng Tzu to interpret the words of Confucius. The content of the book is divided into two parts:

- The upper part has a heaven, called the Sutra, containing the words of Confucius.

- The lower part has all 9 heavens, including the explanations of Zeng Tzu.

The purpose and principles of this book is about the direction of the gentleman , we must first correct the Germans by himself to clarify for people to follow, how to place Chi-friendly . In order to do that, you must first have a way of things (understand things), be intellectual (understand the problem), have a sincere intention (a sincere will), and have a right mind (a straight heart). If you can do these 4 things in order, you will be able to correct yourself (Cultivate your body), keep your home safe (Qi family), rule the country (Treat the country), and pacify the world (Pace the world). Such is the way of the warrior.

The book Trung Dung was made by Ong Tu Tu. Tu Tu was the grandson of Confucius, a student of Zeng Tzu, and received the teachings of Zen Buddhism. In the book Trung Dung, Tu Tu quotes Confucius' words about the theory of Trung Dung, that is, about how to keep thoughts and words, as well as actions at a neutral level, not excessive, not inadequate. , and must strive in life according to Nhan, Nghia, Le, Tri, and Faith, to become a gentleman, according to the Saint. The book is divided into 2 parts:

- Part 1 : From chapter 1 to chapter 20, is the main part, including the words of Confucius teaching his students about the Middle Way, how to make the mind: Continuity, Nurturing, Tranquility, Sat; The living standard includes enough Humanity, Righteousness, Ceremony, Tri, and Faith, to be in harmony with all things, in harmony with God's heart, to become a gentleman.

- Part 2 : From chapter 21 to chapter 33, ie the last chapter is a sub-section, including the opinions of Tu Tu explaining more clearly the meaning and value of the two words Trung Dung.

Both of the above two books, the University and the Middle Ages, were originally the sages in the Li Ching Sutra, then the Confucianists of the Song dynasty separated them into two volumes, to combine with the Luan Ngu and Mencius books into the Four Books. “The two words Trung Dung include all the austerities of Confucian philosophy, promoting the changing ethics of the universe and human life in a systematic way.

Trung Dung is the favorite Tao of Confucius, which is transmitted by the Heart, that is, by using the Heart to understand it, not by using words to explain it properly, because the meaning is transcendent and the meaning is very good. hidden. Confucius observed the mysteries of Heaven and Earth, clearly saw the natural transformation of the universe, that is, he understood the Heavenly Way, and based on that truth, he invented rules for humans and for the society. In Thien Dao, the word TRUNG is the weak point, because the operation of the universe is always in harmony and parallelism, so the new Heaven and Earth are located, all things are bio-chemically infinite.

Humanity must follow the TRUE, the new action is correct and reasonable. So Trung Dung is the morality of being human, the truth of human life. But following the Trung Dung religion is very difficult, you have to keep your mind for justice, try to give up all your thoughts, overcome lust, develop the natural logic of God endowed, seek the way in your heart and understand yourself. , then believe, then new thoughts and actions are as pure as the Theosophy. In Tu Tu's commentary on Confucius's words about Trung Dung, he said: "Neutrality is the natural nature of Heaven and Earth, and Trung Dung is one's virtue. The middle is the middle, there is no bias, Dung is the common one, that is, using the Trung Dung religion as the common one.

Trung Dung Dao can be followed by anyone, but not many people follow it, just like everyone eats and drinks, but few people eat and know the taste. Only saints can learn, because according to that religion, there must be three virtues: Tri, Nhan, Dung . Wisdom is to know the truth; Humanity is to understand what is good to do; Courage is to have the will to sue and follow to do good to the end. Those three attainments are the three doors to the Tao.

Therefore, it is said that: Hieu studied near Tri lake, strength worked close to Nhan lake, tri shy was close to Dung lake . Meaning: If you like learning, you will be close to Tri; if you work hard, you will be close to Nhan; if you are shy, you will be close to Dung. Only these 3 things can correct oneself, rule people, and rule the nation and the world. “The Trung Dung book tells the basic way of Saints in Heaven, and then explains all the reasons that make people keep themselves respectful while acting and even when they are silent alone. Infer that logic to benevolence, in order to make the world equal, and praise the miraculous effect of that Tao until the spirit is voiceless and colorless.

What a book of very high philosophy, thought of the books of ancient times, there has never been a book that discusses such a transcendent theory (According to Confucianism by Tran Trong Kim). Through the book Trung Dung, one can clearly see the Confucian perception and conception of the Universe, the transformation of all things, of the reason that " Heaven and Earth are all the same " and " Heaven and Man's mutual evil ", ie. brought Heaven into Humanity, also clarified the relationship between Mind and Matter, that is, between Spirit and Matter, between Tri and Action.

Those are very important issues of philosophy from ancient times to the present day.

Analects

Analects is a book that records the words of Confucius taught to his students and words to his contemporaries. The Book of Analects consists of 20 heavens, each of which is named with the first letter, and the gods have nothing to do with each other.

Reading this book, one can understand the character and character of Confucius, especially in education. He proved to be a teacher who understood the psychology of his students, skillfully bringing his teachings to suit each person's level and situation. As it is sometimes the same question that He answers for each person is different. Cheng Yichuan of the Song Dynasty said: Some people finished reading the book Luan Ngu but did not see anything; some people finish reading and then enjoy a few sentences; Some people read it and feel so interested that they dance their hands and feet without realizing it. Therefore, when reading the Luan Ngu book, you must read it slowly, think carefully, and the more you think about it, the more you will discover. Trinh Y Xuyen also said:Whoever has read the Luan Ngu book and still has the same characteristics as before, he has not yet understood the Luan Ngu book.

In short, the book Luan Ngu teaches the way of the gentleman in a practical way, describes the character and virtue of Confucius to set an example for people to follow.

Mencius

The Book of Mencius is a series of books created by Mencius in collaboration with his disciples: Nhac Chinh Khac, Cong Ton Suu, and Van Chuong, made to record the exchanges between Mencius and the vassal kings, and between Meng. Tu and his disciples, along with criticisms of other theories such as those of Mo Di and Duong Chu. The book of Mencius has 7 heavens divided into 2 parts: the Psychology part and the Political part.

- Psychology

Mencius believes that each person has a good nature endowed by God. Education must take that Goodness as the basis, keep it from being obscured, and cultivate it to develop into an honest person.

The mind is the Spirit of God given to people. Thus, our mind and God are the same body. Learning is to keep the Mind, nurture the Nature, know the truth of Heaven, and follow the right destiny.

Humanity and Righteousness are inherent in the human conscience. Just because we are immersed in the circle of material things, our conscience is darkened, so we have to give up Humanity.

Mencius refers to the natural qi, saying that it is the spirit of man who has merged with Heaven. Mencius's Psychology section is very profound, allowing scholars, regardless of status or circumstances, to retain their precious dignity.

- Politics

Mencius advocated: "The people are precious, the society is low-key, the military is contemptible" . This is a very new and audacious idea in the reign of totalitarian monarchy. He recognized the monarchy, but the king was not entitled to make the people his own. Right for the people and for the people . For that, there must be a fair law. Even kings and mandarins have no right to go beyond that law. Those who govern the people and govern the country must take care of the people and the country, so that the people's lives are prosperous, and then have to take care of educating the people so that the people understand the law and obey it, taking Humanity as the basis for implementation.

Mencius' political position was very new and bold, but very reasonable, making it impossible for the autocrats of the time to refute. Is this the theory that started the formation of the later Constitutional Monarchy?

The Mencius book series is very valuable. The Psychology section in this book is the pinnacle of Confucian doctrine. Confucianist Song Cheng Yichuan said: “Those who go to school should take the Luan Ngu and Mencius books as their core. Having learned these two books, there is no need to study the Five Classics, but also understand the Tao of Saint Hien."

In summary, the Confucian Four Books series was born more than two thousand years ago, has experienced many ups and downs in the ups and downs of Chinese history, once being collected by the tyrant Qin Shi Huang. burned, and sometimes dissipated in China's endless civil wars, thus inevitably the tribulation of three stars.

In the Song Dynasty, the Four Books were revised by Confucian names. First of all are two brothers, Cheng Hao  (1032-1085), self-named Ba Chun, Trinh Di (1033-1107), self- titled Chinh Thuc, alias Yichuan, so they are often called Cheng Yichuan , two brothers studying, composing and commenting on the Four Books and the Five Classics. After that, Mr. Chu Hy (1130-1200) named Hoi Am, revised, arranged and divided chapters for a transparent order.

Today, there are copies of Tu Thu and Ngu Kinh thanks to the merits of two cousins ​​Trinh and Chu Hy during the Song Dynasty.

Biography of Confucius

Confucius named Khau, self-titled Trong Ni, was born on the 27th day of the 8th lunar month of the year Canh Tuat (551 BC), the reign of King Linh Vuong in the 21st year of the Chau dynasty, corresponding to the reign of King Lu Tuong Cong in the 22nd year of the year. , in Xuong Binh village, Khuc Phu district, Lu country, now Shandong province, China.

Confucius was a descendant of Vi Tu Khai and Vi Tu Dien, both of whom were the biological brothers of King Tru, the son of Emperor De At of the Shang Dynasty (also known as the An Dynasty). After Chau Vo Vuong destroyed King Tru, opening the Chau Dynasty, Ong Chau Cong Dan joined with Khuong Thuong, arranged for Vi Tu Khai to be king of the Song state, to take care of the sacrifices of the Shang kings. Vi Tu Khai died, I am Vi Tu Dien to take over.

Vi Tu Dien's 13-generation grandson is Thuc Luong Ngot, a great mandarin of the state of Lu, the father of Confucius. He took the surname Khong, because Thuc Luong Ngot was a descendant of Khong Phung Thuc, and established the Khong family since Confucius Phu Gia, after 5 generations of Cong Khanh took up residence in the Song state.

Thuc Luong Ngot had a wife, surnamed Thi, who gave birth to 9 daughters, a concubine gave birth to a son but was crippled in one leg, named Manh Bi, self-named Ba Ni. When Thuc Luong Ngot was 70 years old, fearing that he would not have an heir, he sent someone to the Nhan family to propose marriage. The Nhan family has 5 daughters, all unmarried, intending to criticize Thuc Luong Ngot for being too old, and told them:

- Do you have any children who agree to marry the Dai doctor in Chau Ap?

The four eldest daughters were all silent, the youngest, Trung Tai, stood up and said:

- The permission to be a daughter, when you are still at home, according to your father's words, I will sit there wherever you put me.

The Nhan family heard that their youngest daughter said that, they were surprised, so they married Trung Tai to Thuc Luong Ngot. Trung At was already married to Thuc Luong Ngot, the couple was worried about the rarity of not having a son, so together they went to Ni Son mountain to pray. When Trung Tai climbed the mountain of Ni Son, many leaves vibrated. When the ritual is done, when you go back down, the leaves will hang down again. That night, Trung Ta dreamed that God Hac Emperor summoned him and said:

- In the future, she will give birth to a holy child, but when the forest products come, she should stay in the cave of Khong Tang mountain.

When she woke up, she found out she was pregnant. Another day, Trung Ta was daydreaming like a dreamer, suddenly seeing an old man standing in the yard, claiming to be Ngu Tinh, leading an animal like a baby buffalo but with one horn, his body was striped. . When the beast saw Trung Tai, he knelt down and released a jade chain, on which was the inscription: "Son of the Tinh family, succeeding Suy Chau and becoming king without a throne".

Trung Tsai knew that it was a strange omen, and immediately tied a silk band to the horn of the beast. When she woke up, Trung Ta told her husband the dream. Thuc Luong Ngot says:

- That beast is a unicorn.

Near the end of the period, Trung Ta asked Thuc Luong Ngot, where is Khong Tang mountain cave? Thuc Luong Ngot says:

- Nam Son mountain has a rock cave, custom called Khong Tang cave.

Trung Ta immediately prepared to live there and give birth in Khong Tang cave exactly as God told him. On the night of Confucius' birth, two green dragons flew down from the sky to lie down on both sides of the mountain and two goddesses brought incense to wash Trung's hair. After washing, go away. When Trung Ta made forest products, he suddenly saw that there was a hot spring in the cave for Trung Ta to bathe. After bathing, the stream dried up immediately. Thuc Luong Ngot says:

- Because I prayed from Nishan mountain to get this baby, so I named it Khau, the name Trong Ni.

Trung Tai knew that this child would do great things, so he did his best to raise and take care of him. Confucius has a very strange appearance: Lips like buffalo lips, arms like tiger hands, shoulders like a bird's shoulder, back of a turtle, wide mouth, open mouth, flat forehead and tall, when grown up, he is 9 cm 6 cm tall (Chinese size) ), eager to learn.

When Confucius was 3 years old, his father died. He lived with his mother in poverty. When he grew up, his mother sent him to school. He played with the neighborhood children and liked to make sacrifices. At the age of 15, he set out to study. At the age of 19, he married his wife, his wife is a child of the Song dynasty Shangguan family.

At the age of 20, his wife gave birth to a son. That day, Lu Chieu Cong sent to give him a carp (Ly Ngu), so on that occasion, he named his son Ly Tu Ba Ngu, to show respect for the king's gift. Later, Ba Yu died at the age of 50, before Confucius. Ba Ngu's son named Khong Level, self-titled Tu Tu, studied with Sang Sam, then published the book Trung Dung.

Qualities of Confucius

Confucius was a very intelligent man, always eager to learn. Whatever it is, He also pays close attention to it to know it to the end. His personality is mild, dignified, humble, he does everything carefully, upholds rituals and music, and always believes in the Destiny of Heaven.

The period of political participation and teaching

At the age of 21, Confucius was appointed as Commissioner Lai, a small official who took care of the bookkeeping of the granary, as well as weighing and picking the rice. After that, through the position of Priest Lai, he considered the raising of cows, goats and animals used for sacrifice.

When he was 25 years old, his mother mourned. At the age of 29, he studied the piano with Su Xiang, in the country of Lu. Although he was a small official, Confucius was famous for being a scholar, knowing a lot, so the great mandarin of the state of Lu, Trong Ton Co, let his two sons, Ha Ky and Nam Cung Quat, follow him to study the ritual.

Confucius wanted to go to Luoyang, the capital of the Zhou Dynasty, to study rituals and temple system, but because the family was poor and could not afford tolls, he had to complain only. His student Nam Cung Quat heard that, and immediately went back to report to Lu Chieu Cong. The king immediately gave him a two-horse carriage and a few servants to take him and Nam Cung Quat to Luoyang. Arriving there, Confucius observed the Sun Temple, Ming Tang Dynasty, studied ancient laws and books, went to see Giao Dan, where the king sacrificed to Heaven and Earth, and then to Xa Dan, where the king sacrificed to God. Nong and God Hau Tho.

Wherever there was a connection to the sacrifice, he came to observe and inquire in detail. He went to see Trinh Hoanh to ask about Music. While in Luoyang, Confucius even went to see Lao Tzu to ask about the ceremony. (See the Biography of Lao Tzu in the Taoist section, for an exchange between the two saints.) Confucius in Luoyang finished surveying the affairs, then returned to the country of Lu. Since then, His study was much broader, so more and more students asked to study. But King Lu still did not use him for national affairs.

After a few years, in the country of Lu, Quy Binh Tu rebelled. He followed Lu Chieu Cong to temporarily flee to the country of Qi. Here he learned the lyre. Qi Jinggong invited him to ask about politics. King Qi was very impressed and wanted to give Ni Khe land to him, but the General of the State of Qi, Yen Anh, prevented it. The following year, when he returned to the country of Lu, he saw that the Quy family used Duong Ho for autocracy and wanted to usurp. He returned to his hometown to take care of teaching, and to thoroughly study Thanh Hien's Taoism. He was 36 years old at that time.

In the 9th year of King Lo Dinh Cong's reign, he was 51 years old. He was invited by King Lo to be a mandarin, conferred the position of Trung Do Te to take care of ruling in Trung Do Hamlet, that is, the land of the Imperial City. A year later, the four directions took His politics as a model. In the 10th year of Lu Dinh Cong (500 years BC), he supported King Lu to go and associate with Qi Canh Cong in Giap Coc. Thanks to his ability to speak and respond in a timely manner, King Qi greatly admired and returned to the State of Lu 3 plots of land in Quy Am that Qi had taken from Lu a few years ago.

Over the next year, Confucius held the position of Tu Khong, then promoted to Dai Tu Khau (Figure Bo Thuong Tho) to oversee the sentencing. He laid down laws to help the poor, established rules, fixed burials, large and small were orderly, boys and girls were not confused, fraud and theft were no more, society was peaceful and prosperous.

After 4 years, Lu Dinh Cong promoted him to the position of General Su (General of the Nation), taking charge of domestic politics. When he ruled for 7 days, he told King Lu to kill the god Thieu Chinh Mao to correct the government.

Confucius killed Shao Zheng Mao

Thieu Chinh Mao was a very dangerous courtier under the Lu Dinh Cong movement. At that time, Confucius was serving as the General of the State of Lu. Quy Ton Tu, a powerful Great God in the court, but always consulted Confucius whenever there was a decision in the affairs of the country. But in the part of Shao Zheng Mao, when Confucius said something, he immediately derided it, making the listeners confused and sometimes fascinated. Confucius confided to Lu Dinggong:

- The state of Lu could not prosper because of indiscriminate flattery, and not strict rewards and punishments. For example, if you want to grow good rice, you have to get rid of bad weeds. May God allow you to bring the Vietnamese objects (used in the picture) in the Thai temple and display them below the two shops to use for the picture. Lo Dinh Cong for. The next morning, Lu Dinh Cong ordered the court officials to have a meeting to discuss the destruction of the hamlet to see how beneficial it was. The officials should break, the speaker should not break. Thieu Chinh Mao welcomed Confucius, saying:

- Breaking the citadel has 6 convenient things:

1. To respect the king's right no one is equal.

2. To respect the authority of the city.

3. To inhibit private rights.

4. To make the servants abuse their power not to rely on.

5. For peace of mind 3 houses: Manh, Thuc, Quy.

6. In order to make other countries hear what our country of Lu does, they must respect it.

Confucius said to Lu Dinggong:

- Now that the citadel is like that, what can she do, let alone Cong Liem Duong still have loyalty to the king, how dare she call it abuse of power. Thieu Chinh Mao used clever words to cause political turmoil, causing my king to seperate, according to law, he should be killed.

The mandarins in the court:

- Thieu Chinh Mao is an honorable person in our country, and even if he says it wrong, it is not a death penalty.

Confucius said to Lu Dinggong:

- Thieu Chinh Mao is a liar who argues and makes people bewitched. Without killing, politics can't be done. May God allow the government to bring out Vietnamese government to cure sin.

Confucius ordered the athlete to tie Shao Zheng Mao and bring him to Duoc Quan and kill him. The mandarins in the court were all scared, their faces were gray and blue. Three families: Manh, Thuc Quy, they were all shocked when they saw it.

Since killing Thieu Chinh Mao, Lu Dinh Cong and the 3 families of Manh, Thuc, and Quy, have they wholeheartedly listened to the words of Confucius. Thanks to this, Confucius adjusted the discipline in the country, teaching the people the manners, righteousness, integrity, and virtue, so that the people were no longer turbulent, but politics became better every day.

Three months later, the custom changed: Chicken and pig traders did not dare to stuff bran in order to deceive buyers; While going out on the street, boys and girls go out to separate each other, there is no chaos, no one can pick up what has been dropped on the street, people from other countries who travel to the country of Lu are treated with kindness and are not allowed to be deprived. The people of Lu made a song to praise the merits of Confucius. That song was transmitted to the country of Qi. Qi Canh Cong said worriedly:

- If the country of Lu knows how to use Kong Qiu, it will cause Ba's karma, and disaster will come to the country of Qi, how do we know?

Quan Dai Phu Le Di said:

- The Duke of Lu knows how to use Kong Qiu, so why not set up a way to stop it.

Qi Canh Cong says:

- The State of Lu gave the political power to Kong Qiu, how can I prevent it?

Le Di said:

- Human nature, when it is strong, it will give birth to pride. May God establish a set of Female Music that will be presented to King Lu. King Lu, who accepted Bo Nu Le, was bound to be lazy and bored with Kong Qiu. At that time, Kong Qiu had to leave the state of Lu and go, so that the Duke could sit still.

Indeed, Lu Dinggong, did not listen to Confucius's intercession, received the Ministry of Nu Nhac and became infatuated with it, neglecting the government affairs, sometimes not going to see the court for 3 days. . Confucius tried to interrupt King Lu many times but could not. He could be harmed because of the deceit of the wicked gods. Therefore, on the day of the sacrifice, King Lu did not look at him, nor did he bring the sacrificed meat to the Dai Phu mandarins. Confucius, taking advantage of the small mistake of King Lu, asked to resign, leaving the state of Lu to travel to vassal countries.

The period of preparing books and teaching students

When he returned to Lu, Confucius was 68 years old. He returned to his hometown to expand his teaching and book-writing activities. The total number of disciples of Confucius sometimes reached 3000 people (Three Thien Disciples), of which 72 people were classified as talented, so it was called Seven Twelve Hien.

Confucius re-arranged the scriptures of the previous Saint Sage, such as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of the Book, the Liturgy of the Hours, the Music of the Sea, and the I Ching. He noted the words of the previous Saint Sage, rearranged them in order, annotated confusing places, especially with the I Ching, he commented very carefully.

Confucius was the Most Holy One, but he still humbly did not dare to claim to be a Saint. To the disciples, He was very permissive. Anyone who followed the right ceremony to ask for a lesson, He never refused. He accepted students, regardless of whether rich or poor, mandarins or people. He opened a popular popular education, training a new class of intellectuals, talented and virtuous among the common people.

Confucius died

In the spring of the 14th year of Lu Ai Cong (481 BC), the Lu people went hunting and caught a unicorn with one leg on the left front. Confucius came to see it, then covered his face and wept. When he returned, he lamented: " Wo Dao and Hai! "(My Tao comes to an end!).

The book of Spring and Autumn covers this matter, so the next generation also called the book of Spring and Autumn the Lan Kinh. In the year of Nham Tuat in the 17th Lu Ai Cong dynasty (479 BC), one day Confucius walked in front of the house with a cane, singing while walking: " Thai mountain is hilly and lakey!" Luong wood ruin lake! Philosophers of the lake! (Thai mountain falls down! Good trees rot! Philosophers are tired!). His disciple Tu Cong immediately came to visit him. “I knew I was going to die,” he said. On the day of the Ox, which is February 18, the year of the Dog, Confucius died at the age of 73.

His grave is located on the bank of the Tu Thuy River, north of the city of Lu, now known as Khong Lam, in Khuc Phu district, Shandong province. His three thousand disciples all mourned and mourned, praying to mourn the Master for three years. More than 100 disciples built houses around the grave to worship for 3 years, only Tu Cong stayed there for 6 years. The perimeter of the land around the tomb of Confucius was about 100 acres wide, without any thorns or grass growing. Students told each other to find exotic flowers and herbs in different places and plant them around.

Tam Khong, the residence and mausoleum of the Confucius family in Qufu, Shandong, China .

The Dynasties Conferred Confucius

- In 739, King Duong Huyen Ton bestowed Confucius as Van Tuyen Vuong , dressed in Emperor's uniform, and presented to his disciples the titles: Duke, Hou, Ba.

- In 1008, King Tong Chan Tong ordained him as: Dai Thanh Van Tuyen Vuong , his father was named Lu Cong , his mother was named Lu Lady , his wife was Madame Thuong Quan Thi as Lady Van , and out ordered the provinces to set up shrines to worship him.

- In 1306, King Minh The Tong awarded him the title Chi Thanh Tien Su .

- In 1645, King Thanh The To was ordained as Dai Thanh Chi Thanh Van Tuyen King Master Confucius.

The Memorial of Literature

Temple of Literature or Temple of Literature is a building erected to worship Confucius and his disciples along with Tien Hien, Tien Nho through the ages.

The Branches of Confucianism

Confucianism from the time of Confucius to the Qing Dynasty in China has been estimated for 2500 years. During that time, Confucianism had its ups and downs, but always had a strong spirit to cope with the times, survive and prosper. Thanks to that spirit, although academia has changed many times, the characteristics of Confucianism have not been lost, but always maintained a dignified attitude enough to make people believe.

In terms of academic variation, from the Han dynasty onwards, we can divide Confucianism into two schools: the Nghia Ly school (learning about doctrine) and the Tu Chu school (studying to pass the exam) .

After the time of Confucius, Confucianism had two major sects: Mencius and Xunzi. These two sects claim to follow the teachings of Confucius, but each maintains a separate principle.

From the end of the Warring States period to the end of the Qin Dynasty, to the Han Dynasty, Confucianism was in a state of middle decline, then from the reign of Emperor Wu and Han onward, Confucianism was very popular, but the scholarly in the era from From the Han to the Tang dynasties, focusing only on finding meaning in the Classics, became a way of learning called Huanhu learning.

After the Song Dynasty, Confucianists abandoned the teaching of Huanhu, sought out the great words of Thanh Hien, founded the Ly Hoc school , brought the thought to the transcendent realm and created a very high philosophy. smart.

The Confucian School of the Song Dynasty has three doctrines:

- Arithmetic figurines.

- Daoism.

- Psychology.

Arithmetic statue was  created by Thieu Khang Tiet, but later it did not become popular.

Taoism and Psychology , from the Song Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty, are opposites. Taoism uses Cheng Chu as a representative, while Tam Hoc takes Luc Vuong as a representative.

At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Confucianism was divided into several more sects, such as: Han Hoc school, Song Hoc school, and finally the New Hoc school.

The Han School sect takes the study of the Classics as its guiding principle. The Song Hoc sect takes the doctrine of Song Nho as its guiding principle. The New School takes politics in the sense of the Pentateuch as its guiding principle.

These schools all want to modify the record to make the learning suitable for real-life applications.

Learning from the chapter (learning science)

In addition to the Schools specializing in Nghia Ly, there is also  the Tu chapter school , which focuses only on the Faculty of Education, to bring students into the path of fame and fortune.

Studying Science sent from the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty was very prosperous. Confucianism thanks to that learning spread throughout the world, but also because of that study, it became a fictitious study, losing the truth of Thanh Hien's learning. Hoang Le Chau of the early Qing Dynasty said: " Determining the career of the Holy Spirit of learning ". That is: The study of Science flourished, the study of Thanh Hien lost. This is a true statement about the disease of science education.

Confucianism has such a variable and flourishing power because it has a " hidden cost " education , which is broad and deep, practical and mysterious, and always follows the Trung Dung religion, that is, the thought of Confucianism. then go to extreme heights, but the behavior is still kept in moderation, not biased towards either side, making the life of all kinds of people happy (According to Confucianism of Tran Trong Kim).

Confucian Education

In terms of education, Confucianism says that the Nature of God endowed with each person is Goodwill. Because of that nature, everyone is born with the Four Doan , including: Compassion, Tu U, Tu Luong, and Thi Phi, that is, the first 4 clues of: Nhan, Nghia, Le, and Tri. People do evil because they let their lustful thoughts cover up that Four Doan. Therefore, Education is the main purpose of cultivating the Good and punishing the Evil ones. A person who can do the four things: Humanity, Righteousness, Ceremony, and Wisdom is a gentleman with very precious dignity.

The education of Confucianism takes Duc education as the root and takes Wisdom as the top. If the root is strong, the new top will be healthy. With virtue, the meaning penetrates into people's hearts, causing them to get rid of their wicked belly. Educated people often have to limit themselves to the realm of the name and religion, so even if the evil mind is born, it cannot grow up. That is the merit of Confucianism, even though people can't fully practice the way of Thanh Hien, they can still create a very good atmosphere in society.

The foundation of our virtue and education is Confucianism, which has been built up for thousands of years, and has been completely effective, so we should keep it and pass it on to make our nation's own inheritance. We again collect the things that we are still lacking in knowledge, add to that karma, make the mind and the mind harmonize with each other and evolve. Thus, our learning has a basis, so even if we change anything, there will be less mistakes.

10. Vietnamese Confucianism

Vietnam is a small country next to a great country China, the Vietnamese people are less civilized, so Vietnam was colonized by China 4 times for more than 1000 years.

During that period of domination, the Chinese intended to assimilate the Vietnamese people with the Chinese, turning Vietnam into a province of China. The Chinese have immigrated to Vietnam, did business with the Vietnamese, married and married the Vietnamese, and passed on through Vietnam Chinese customs, occupations and beliefs. However, the Vietnamese have a very strong nationalist spirit, always revolting against the assimilation of the Chinese. Vietnam has a progressive spirit, always learning from the good of people to be as wise and progressive as the Chinese, to be able to preserve and say like Vietnam.

In terms of religious beliefs, the Chinese passed on to Vietnam three religions (Three religions): Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. Vietnamese people absorbed and worshiped those three religions, and at the same time fused them into a religion with distinct nuances of the Vietnamese people.

As for Confucianism, the Chinese passed to Vietnam earlier than Buddhism and Taoism, through the mandarins who came to act as Thai Beasts to rule Vietnam.

According to History, in the 1st century, during the Western Han Dynasty in China, Thai Thu ruled Giao Chi (Vietnam) as Tich Quang, wholeheartedly taking care of the civilization of Giao Chi people, teaching the people about Le Nghia, and holding wedding ceremonies. Ask in marital affairs. People of Giao Chi are very grateful and respectful.

By the beginning of the 3rd century, Vietnam was still under the Western Han Dynasty, Giao Chi was changed to Giao Chau, and Thai Thu ruled as Si Niep. Si Niep governs the people very well, taking care of teaching people to learn Confucian characters and scriptures, forming a moral and ethical foundation for the Vietnamese people. Vietnamese people admire that merit, respect Si Hiep as Si Vuong and respect as Hoc To of Vietnam.

During more than 1000 years of Chinese domination, the Vietnamese were under the rule and upbringing of the Chinese, so their education, morality, customs, and beliefs all followed the Chinese. However, the Chinese could not assimilate the Vietnamese because the Vietnamese had a strong belief in the sacred origin of their race, the Dragon and the Fairy, so they always rebelled against the domination of the Chinese. .

In the following, we see the evolution of Confucianism in Vietnam from the time of Tu Auto, King Ngo Quyen (939-965) to the present day.

10.1. Vietnamese Confucianism under: Ngo Quyen, Dinh Tien Hoang, Le Dai Hanh and the Ly Dynasty

During these dynasties, the Three Religions were in vogue. Confucianism follows the learning of the Tang Dynasty, and the learning of Confucianism is the study of Science in order to select talents.

During the reign of King Ly Thanh Tong (1034-1072), the Temple of Literature was established to worship Confucius, Chau Cong Dan and Seven Twelve Hien.

Ly Nhan Tong (1072-1127) opened the Tam Truong exam (1075) to recruit Confucian literary people as mandarins, Mr. Le Van Thinh won first place. After that, King Nhan Tong established Quoc Tu Giam, a teacher and trainer of talents; opened the Academy, with the Confucianist Mac Hien Tich as the Academy Scholar.

Temple of Literature L Dynasty reviews

Confucianism in the Ly Dynasty was more prosperous than in previous dynasties, and thanks to that, it produced many sage, loyal, and self-sufficient people. The famous Confucian scholars under the Ly dynasty were: Ly Dao Thanh, Truong Ba Ngoc, To Hien Thanh. These people, although they are not scholars specializing in theology and writing, but know how to use the quintessence of Confucianism to compete in their work, worthy of Confucian names.

10.2. Vietnamese Confucianism under the Tran and Ho dynasties

In the Tran dynasty, Confucianism was more prosperous than before, there were many genuine Confucianists such as: Mac Dinh Chi, Truong Han Sieu, Chu Van An, Le Van Huu, Nguyen Phi Khanh, Han Thuyen, ... Especially in the Tran Dynasty, Besides Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism are also highly respected. King Tran Thai Tong opened the examination for the Three Religions, selecting those who were talented in Confucianism, or Taoism and Buddhism. Those who follow any school that are profoundly moral will be used by the king, not necessarily Confucianism. Thus, the Three Teachings at that time were equally respected.

The Ho Dynasty took over the Tran house. The Ming Dynasty in China had an excuse to send troops to invade and colonize our country, set up academic officials, taught the people the lessons of Song Nho to teach the people, took the Ngu Kinh and Tu Thu of the Trinh family, and the Chu family annotated and taught them. . Chu's education became more and more prosperous.

10.3 Confucianism under the Le and Mac dynasties

King Le Thai To (1428-1433) wholeheartedly expanded his studies, setting aside the Hoc Quan officials to take care of education. The king forced the mandarins of the fourth grade and below to take the Minh Kinh exam, that is, the mandarins had to take the Kinh History exam, the martial arts officials had to take the Vo Kinh exam.

During the reign of Le Thanh Ton (1460-1497), our country's literature was extremely prosperous. Those who passed the doctorate exam are engraved on the stone stele erected in the Temple of Literature. The Confucian names of the Le Dynasty were: Nguyen Trai, Luong The Vinh, Luong Dat Bang, and the Le Trung Hung period were: Phung Khac Khoan, Luong Huu Khanh, Pham Dinh Trong.

Especially in the Mac Dynasty, before Le Trung Hung, a great Confucian name appeared, Nguyen Buong Khiem, who was proficient in Numerology and Dich Kinh, making the Chinese people admire.

During the Le Dynasty in general, Confucianism was very prosperous, but Confucianists only focused on academic studies, taking literature to seek success as an official, but no one achieved the profoundness of Confucianism. high morals that promote valid doctrines like the Chinese. That is the weak point of Confucianism in our country.

10.4. Confucianism under Trinh Nguyen divided, Tay Son and Nguyen Gia Long dynasties

During the war of Trinh Nguyen, Confucianism received little attention from kings and kings, but only cared about martial arts to fight. Studying for exams was roughly the same as in the Le Dynasty, always taking Confucianism as the main focus. An important thing was that Lord Trinh Giang ordered the book to be printed. Previously, Confucian books such as Ngu Kinh, Tu Thu were bought from China, now Lord Trinh Giang ordered to be printed in Thang Long and distributed everywhere.

In Bac Ha, there are Confucian names such as: Le Qui Don, Ngo Thi Si, and Nguyen Du. In the South, Lord Nguyen was busy expanding his territory to the South, so he paid little attention to Confucianism, making Confucianism in the South far behind in the North, but also producing some famous Confucian talents and literary martial arts such as: : Dao Duy Tu, Nguyen Huu Dat, Nguyen Huu Tien, Nguyen Huu Hao with the story Song Tinh But Dat.

The Tay Son Dynasty (1788-1802) lasted 14 years, suffered from constant war, so Confucianism was not focused. There was a special event, King Quang Trung ordered to officially use the Nom script in writing, to create a strong national spirit of the Vietnamese people. A Nom literature was supported by the Confucians before but was not officially recognized and promoted by the kings. It was not until the reign of King Quang Trung was opened to replace the Chinese literature.

The Nom script was invented by Han Thuyen during the Tran Dynasty, in the same form as the Han script, but read in the Southern language. This proves that the national consciousness of the Vietnamese people wants to get rid of the complete dependence on Chinese writing. There are many valuable works of Nom script that represent Vietnamese literature such as: Tales of Kieu by Nguyen Du, Tales of Hoa Tien by Nguyen Huy Tu, Tales of Song Tinh But Da by Nguyen Huu Hao, etc. . . During this period, there were Confucian scholars with profound learning, noble temperament, reclusive places in the mountains, refusing to become mandarins, like you: Ngo The Lan, Dang Thai Phuong, Nguyen Thiep (La Son Phu Tu), Especially, Mr. Dang Thai Phuong brought the book Chu Dich to perform Nom in the style of prose, called Chu Dich Quoc Am Quyet.

King Gia Long drove out Tay Son, founded the Nguyen Dynasty, very focused on learning. The king ordered the establishment of Temples of Literature in the businesses and towns to worship Confucius, to show respect for Confucianism, and to open Quoc Tu Giam School to teach Confucianism. Nom literature was very popular, but the king still used Chinese as the main character.

The kings of the Nguyen Dynasty respected Confucian studies and adjusted the examination to select talented Confucians to help the country. Many famous Confucianists such as: Ly Van Phuc, Nguyen Cong Tru, Phan Huy Chu, Nguyen Khuyen, etc. .. King Gia Long successfully restored the country thanks to the aid of France in Europe, so he had to send French missionaries to Vietnam to propagate Christianity. Christianity has shaken Confucianism strongly. King Minh Mang said: "Western Taoism is the Left Way, which fascinates people and destroys customs, so it must be banned to make people follow the Righteous Way."

The prohibition of Christianity began during the reign of King Minh Mang. This is the reason for the French to invade our country, put dominion over our nation for nearly a century. Christianity and Western philosophy were introduced into Vietnam, making Confucianism completely lose its uniqueness in Vietnamese society.

10.5. Confucianism under the French Colony and the Decline of Confucianism in Vietnam

The Confucian class is leading Vietnamese society, when faced with Western culture, seeing that people are strong and civilized, while they are weak and corrupt, they mistakenly think the cause of that strength. is due to machines and scientific minds. Then some scholars advocated to shake off the past, rejecting traditional Taoism, claiming that it was the cause of weakness and failure. They advocate completely neo-school.

The French spread Christianity in Vietnam, giving believers many material benefits. The Catholic missionaries, for the sake of missionary needs, should transliterate Vietnamese by using the letters of the French script to form today's national language. It was the work of two missionaries: Alexandre de Rhode (Dac Lo) and Pigneau de Béhaine (Ba Da Loc) .

Quoc Ngu script is easier to learn than Chinese or Nom script, so it is fully supported by the New School and gradually completely replaces Chinese characters in education.

In 1918, the Hue court, under the protection of France, ordered the abolition of exams in Chinese characters. Thanks to that, the national language script became important and essential for the evolution of Vietnam. Chinese characters are a tool of Confucianism, but today has been abolished, Confucianism is no longer respected and existed. The learning from the chapter, away from the reality of Confucianism really ended, giving way to the New School with the word quoc Ngu.

In short, the academic and ideological lines of Confucianism in Vietnam have changed from time to time similar to Chinese Confucianism. Vietnamese Confucianists believe that the ideas that Thanh Hien said in the Sutras, Letters, and Tales. All of them are complete, no one knows any more, so the Confucianists only study hard to memorize these things and try to put them into practice. Therefore, there is no Confucianist who has achieved the great wisdom of Confucianism and invented a new doctrine. Confucianism in Vietnam is only within the scope of Xing Nhi Ha's studies.

Ending

I would like to quote the following comments by Mr. Phan Ke Binh, written in the book Vietnam Customs and Confucianism in Vietnam, as the conclusion of this essay on Confucianism. “Confucianism is an ordinary and simple religion, following the nature of the Creator, in harmony with the natural temperament of people, and anyone can follow it. A person who has learned Confucianism should be a person of decency, discipline, and benevolence. A country that uses Confucianism should be a disciplined, unified, easy-to-rule country, and the people will also enjoy peace and blessings.

There is only one thing: Philosophy is full of illusory points, making it difficult for people to understand, rituals have many constraints that make it difficult for people to follow. The temperament is gentle and gentle, which makes the people weak, not brave and active like the Europeans, the utilitarian prefers the common thrift, which makes the rudimentary and unsophisticated industries flourish as they do. European countries.

In short, Confucianism is a very good self-governing religion, which is not strong for competition in life. As for the bad habits, most of them are caused by people's own bad deeds, and should not be blamed on Confucianism. However, our country also thanks to Confucianism to follow the civilizations of China, which makes a country with literature, politics, morality, and education.

If there was no European study before, but there was no Confucianism, then our country was just a barbarian place. Then the merit of Confucianism transmitted to our country is very great, even if thanks to European studies, we become a more prosperous country than before, we should not forget that merit. Because that merit has opened our eyes, for example, when a child, first asked a teacher to teach him a little bit of wisdom, later on, even if thanks to another teacher, he learns more wisdom and is more skillful. should not forget the work of the previous teacher. And if you follow Confucianism and use it wisely, give up the corrupt restraints, bring new wisdom and ideas to fill in the weak places, you should also have a prosperous and prosperous country, but perhaps even better. .

I see that recently, the former Confucianists sighed and lamented among themselves that our Confucianism was degenerate and was about to be destroyed. I think, things must decay over time, but every religion has its ups and downs. What's more, a time of change is an opportunity for the Creator to build a rhyme, only if the old foundation is ruined to create a new one.

Confucius also called Confucius was born on 27 month 8 years 551 BC , lost April 11 in 479 BC (72 years old) was a thinker, philosopher , educator, politician, writer Famous Chinese scholar , his lectures and philosophies have had a profound influence on the life and thought of the peoples of East Asia . Later Chinese people honored him as Van The Master (Master of Eternity). The current Chinese government, in an effort to spread Chinese culture to the world, has established hundreds of Confucius Institutes. all over the world.

His philosophical emphasis on the cultivation of virtue and personal rule of morality : "self development, economics class, governance, average galaxy", the accuracy of the relationship of social relations , ethics and human standards, "Dao Trung Dung" and the virtues of "Humanity, Ceremony, Righteousness, Tri, Faith". Those values ​​had a great influence on all other doctrines in China such as Legalism or Taoism during the Han dynasty . Confucius' ideas were developed into a philosophical system known as Confucianism . Confucianism was brought to Europe by an Italian, Matteo Ricci , who was also the first to Latinize it Confucius' name became "Confucius". Confucianism is also considered a great religion of mankind, especially the Chinese nation .

Confucius' teachings are studied primarily through the Analects , a collection of "short aphorisms", compiled years after his death and recorded by his students. For nearly 2,000 years, he is said to be the composer or author of the Five Classics : Kinh Thu , Kinh Thi , Kinh Le , I Ching , and the Spring and Autumn Classic ( The Musical Classic was burned by Qin Shi Huang, so the Five Classics remained).

Biography

Confucius' name is not sutured , self-brand is Trong Ni , born on 27 month 8 years 551 BC , during the Spring and Autumn of Chinese history , in Hamlet Buffalo, Village Changping, the state of Lu (now the district Qufu , Shandong Province , China ). Many historical books record that he was born into a poor family, but in fact his family had a three-generation ancestor who belonged to the fallen aristocracy from the Song state and moved to the Lu state. Thuc Luong Ngot (13th grandson of Vi Tu Dien , brother of King Tru of the Shang Dynasty) ) was a martial arts official from Trau hamlet, and he was born at the age of 70 when he married Nhan Thi.

At the age of three, Khau lost his father, grew up, had to work hard to support his mother, but was very studious. He once said, " ...When I was poor, I had to do many jobs, so I knew a lot of little things. Do a gentleman need to know that much? Don't need to know so many jobs ". At the age of 19, he got married and worked as a small official, specializing in managing the treasure, and paid a fair and accurate salary. He also held the position of a small official specializing in managing livestock farms, and animals grew very well. Thanks to that, he was promoted to the position of Tu No, specializing in construction management. At the age of 22, he opened a teaching class. His students called him Confucius , or for short, Confucius . 'Tzu' in addition to the meaning of 'son' also means 'Teacher'. Master Kong.

At the age of 21, Confucius was appointed as Commissioner Lai, a small official who took care of the bookkeeping of the granary, and the weighing and harvesting of rice. After that, through the position of Priest Lai, he considered the raising of cows, goats and animals used for sacrifice. At the age of 25, he mourned his mother. At the age of 29, he studied the piano with Su Xiang, in the country of Lu.

At the age of 30, Confucius wanted to go to Luoyang , the capital of the Zhou Dynasty , to study rituals and temple system, but because the family was poor and could not afford tolls, he had to complain only. When his student Nam Cung Quat heard this, he immediately returned to report to Lu Chieu Cong . The king immediately gave him a chariot with two horses and a few soldiers to take Confucius and Nam Cung Quat to Luoyang. Arriving there, Confucius observed the Sun Temple, Ming Tang Dynasty, studied ancient laws and books, went to see the Giao Dan, where the king sacrificed Heaven and Earth, and then went to Xa Dan, where the king sacrificed to Shen Nong. and the God of the Earth. Where there was a connection with the sacrifice, he came to observe and inquire about it in detail.

Confucius in Luoyang finished surveying the affairs, then returned to the country of Lu. Since then, his study was much broader, so more and more students applied to study. But King Lu still did not use him for national affairs. After a few years, in the country of Lu, Quy Binh Tu rebelled. He followed Lu Chieu Cong to temporarily flee to the country of Qi. Qi Canh Cong invited him to ask about politics and was very impressed, wanted to give Ni Khe land to him, but the General of the State of Qi, prevented him.

The following year, he returned to the country of Lu to take care of teaching, and to thoroughly study the Taoism of the Holy Sage. At that time he was 36 years old. For nearly 20 years, from the age of 34, Confucius led his students to all countries in the region to spread his ideas and find people to use them. There are places where he is respected, and there are places where he is despised. Confucius and his disciples went through the following countries: Wei, Khuong, Tran, Song, Thai, and Chu, hoping to convince the kings and vassals to apply his Dao to bring peace to the people. But his Dao was Vuong Dao (the way to rule the country), so it went against the plan of Ba Dao (the way to conquer) of the vassal kings and the interests of the great mandarins, so the vassal kings did not dare to use him. He once exclaimed, " Who doesn't have to go through the door to leave the house? So why doesn't anyone follow this religion?When being surrounded in Kuang, Confucius said, " After the death of King Van Vuong, all cultures, ceremonies and music are not in my place? If God wanted this culture to be lost, why, when King Van Vuong died, did he entrust us to hold this culture? And if heaven didn't want to lose this culture, what could the other Khuong people do to us? ". After 14 years of unsuccessful traveling to other countries, he returned to the country of Lu, and there was an official Dai Phu Quy Khang who sent Cong Hoa to pick him up. Confucius's wife, Madame Shangguan, had died a year earlier. His students talked about the period when he traveled to other countries to spread mysticism:

Ziqin asked Tzu-kung, "Whenever our teacher Confucius comes to a country, he is allowed to participate in the political affairs of that country. Is this our teacher's request or is it actively invited by him?"

Tu Cong said: "Our teacher has the virtues of being temperate, salary, supply, thrifty, yielding, so he has received that special honor. Our teacher's method of requesting to participate in politics is completely different from the method of asking for participation in politics. applying for another's job". ( Thesis )

In the 9th year of King Lo Dinh's reign , he was 51 years old, and was invited by King Lo to be a mandarin, conferring the title of Trung Do Te to take care of ruling in Trung Do Hamlet, that is, the Imperial City. A year later, the four directions took his politics as a model. In the 10th year of Lu Dinh Cong (500 BC), he supported King Lu to go to work with Qi Canh Cong in Giap Coc. Thanks to his ability to speak and respond in a timely manner, King Qi greatly admired and returned the three plots of land in Quy Am that Qi had taken from Lu a few years ago.

The following year, Confucius held the position of Tu Khong, and then promoted to Dai Tu Khau (Photo: Thuong Thu) to oversee the execution of the sentence. He set up laws to help the poor, established rules, fixed burials, orderly, large and small, no confusion between boys and girls, no more fraud and theft, and a peaceful and prosperous society. After 4 years, Lu Dinh Cong promoted him to the position of General Su (General of the Nation), taking charge of domestic politics. When he ruled for 7 days, he told King Lu to kill the god Thieu Chinh Mao to correct the government. He adjusted the discipline in the country, taught the people the manners, righteousness, integrity, and shame, so that the people were no longer disturbed and politics was getting better day by day. After three months, the state of Lu became prosperous.

The state of Qi saw that the state of Lu was getting stronger and expressed concern. King Qi followed the plan, established the Nu Nhac Department and presented it to King Lu. Confucius knew that King Qi intended to use the story of pleasure to undermine the government of Lu, so he advised Lu Ding not to accept it, but Ding Gong did not listen. Indeed, King Lu, after receiving Bu Nu Le, was born lazy and hated Confucius. Duke Lu Ding did not listen to Confucius's intercession, neglecting the official government, sometimes not going to see the court for 3 days, everything was assigned to the authority. Confucius tried to interrupt King Lu many times, but failed, so he resigned from his position and left the state of Lu to travel to vassal countries. His way as a mandarin is reflected in what he said to Nhan Hoi: " Use me, I will help you make a career, if you don't use it, I will hide. Only you and I can do this" .

At the age of 68, Confucius returned to the state of Lu, continued to teach and began to write books. He also revised the music of the country of Lu to give elegant music and chanting music of each type its proper place. It can be said that Confucius was the first private teacher in the history of Chinese education. Before his time, the school was entirely owned by the court and usually only accepted children of aristocratic families. Confucius founded a private school, accepted many disciples regardless of background, spread education to the common people, spread cultural knowledge to the people, and made great contributions to education. education in antiquity. The total number of disciples of Confucius sometimes reached 3,000 people (Three Thien Disciples), of which 72 were classified as talented, so it was called the Seven Twelve Sages . Among Confucius's disciples,Nhan Hoi was the most studious but unfortunately died early. Confucius said, " Yan Hui! His heart for three months has never been far from the Taoist. Other games are not like that, it's just a random act of kindness .". Nhan Uyen , a student of Confucius, mournfully lamented that "The higher the teacher looks up, the higher he looks, the more he tries to study, the deeper he sees. Just contemplating in front, suddenly appeared behind. The teacher skillfully led step by step before and after explaining to us thoroughly. He uses all kinds of literature, enriches our knowledge, and knows how to use rituals to gradually put our behavior in order, so that even if we want to, we can't stop, we have exhausted all our resources. study, but still see my teacher's religion as standing in front of me. Even though I wanted to follow to the end, I still couldn't meet my teacher's request ." Confucius talked about his teaching activities.I could not meet people who reached the middle level to spread the word, so I was forced to look for the crazy people, the fake people. The pseudo-maniac has a strong progressive spirit. The sage knows how to keep his heart straight, and never does anything unjust ."

At the age of 69, he began editing works on Chinese culture that were scattered, in many places unclear, easily lost or confused by later generations. Therefore, Confucius perform the classics san repricing of consecrated lay before, up to 6 books: Business Execution , and Scriptures , Beijing Ceremony , Beijing Music , Ching , Beijing Spring and Autumn . Each book deals with a different subject, from poetry, rituals, divination to history. The fact that Confucius compiled 6 books by himself showed his deep knowledge and hard work spirit, which can be considered as the first kind of Encyclopedia in Chinese history. These six books include:

first). The I Ching : talking about Chinese philosophical ideas based on the concepts of yin and yang , the eight trigrams , etc. In the Zhou Dynasty, Chu Van Vuong named and explained the hexagrams of the trigrams called "Than word". Zhou Cong Dan explains in detail the meaning of each dime in each hexagram called Hao word. The I Ching of the Zhou Dynasty was called the Chu Dich. Confucius gave a broader explanation of the Confucianism and the Confucianism to make it easier to understand and called it the Confucius and the Haotian.

2). The Book of Poems: a collection of folk poems that predate Confucius. Confucius decided to divide into 300 heavens to educate people to have pure and healthy emotions and clear expressions. Once, Confucius asked his son, "Have you studied the Book of Poetry?", to which the son replied "no". Confucius said, "If you don't study the Book of Poetry, you won't know how to speak" (The Analects).

3). The Book of Books : records legends and events about the ancient kings that preceded Confucius. Confucius decided to reorganize so that future kings should follow the example of wise men like Yao and Shun, rather than being brutal like Kiet and Tru .

4). Liturgy : records the rituals of the past. Confucius revised and hoped to use it as a means to maintain and stabilize social order. Confucius said: "Do not learn the feast does not know to walk in life" (the book Analects ).

5). The Spring and Autumn Sutra : records the events that occurred in the country of Lu , the hometown of Confucius. Confucius not only took notes as a historian, but pursued the purpose of governing the country, so he selected events, included comments, and composed more lines to educate kings.

There is also Kinh Nhac about music art and musical instruments, but later burned by Qin Shi Huang , only a few remained to form a celestial body in the Kinh Le called Nhac Ky. Thus, there are only 5 books left in 6 books. Later generations call this the Pentateuch . Today, the Five Classics holds a particularly important place in Chinese classical works, thanks to it that up to 2,500 years later, the Chinese have a thorough understanding of the lives of their ancestors in ancient society. .

In the 6 books, Confucius noted the words of the previous sages, rearranged them in order, annotated confusing places, especially with the I Ching, which he explained very carefully. Later, Confucius wrote the Spring and Autumn Sutra , which recorded the affairs of the Lu state and the Zhou dynasty in relation to the vassal states from the Lu Yin Dynasty (721 BC) to the 14th Lu Ai Gong Dynasty (481 BC). BC), a total of 242 years. Confucius saw that the times were chaotic, the righteous path was obscured, the heresies arose, the violence abounded, the son killed his father, and the servants rebelled, so he was afraid to publish the book Spring and Autumn. determine the legitimacy, reward and punishment according to morality. This is the book that Confucius is most interested in, and is one of the first historical works of China, before the History of Sima Thien .

Judging from the outward appearance, the Spring and Autumn Sutra is a chronicle, the words are brief, in many places it seems to have no meaning at all, but when it comes to the spirit, it is a philosophical book on politics. The magic of the Spring and Autumn Sutra is to punish the wicked, whether alive or dead, to treat oneself immediately, in order to admonish the wicked and encourage loyalty, and to encourage good and distant descendants to abandon evil for good. . Confucius used the pen to praise and criticize, to distinguish between good people and bad people very clearly and firmly, so later people called these axes to strike the wicked, deterring them for the next thousand generations:

In the Spring and Autumn Sutras, it is more honorable to receive a word of praise than to receive a coat of arms from the king; to be criticized by a word is to be more humiliating than to commit the crime of ax ax (Nhat tu chi bao, honor u hoa cun; Nhat tu chi satire, humiliation u phu viet). )

Since Confucius upheld the meaning in the Spring and Autumn Sutras, all the psychotic thieves in the world must be terrified (Confucius wrote Xuan Thu Nhi, the psychotic thief, and the death tool) .

In the spring of the 14th year of Lu Ai Cong (481 BC), it is said that the Lu people hunted and caught a unicorn with a lame front leg. Confucius came to see, then covered his face and wept. He lamented: "Wonderful Dao is with hii! (My Dao has come to an end)" . The book of Spring and Autumn covers this matter, so the next generation also called the book of Spring and Autumn the Lan Kinh.

In the year of Nham Tuat, the 17th year of the Lu Ai Cong dynasty (479 BC), one day Confucius walked in front of his house with a walking stick, singing: "Thai mountain is hilly and lakey! (Thai mountain fell down! Good trees rot! Philosophers are tired!)" His student Tu Cong immediately came to inquire, he said: "I know I'm going to die" .

On the day of the Ox, that is, February 18, the year of the Dog (April 479 BC ), Confucius died at the age of 73. Before he died, Confucius exclaimed, " The phoenix does not fly, the Yellow River does not appear to be a letter, my life is over ". His grave is on the bank of the Tu Thuy River, north of the city of Lu, now known as Khong Lam , in Qu Phu District , Shandong Province .

Lifestyle and personality

Confucius was a very intelligent man, always eager to learn. Whatever it is, he pays close attention to it to know it to the end. His personality is mild, dignified, modest, he does everything carefully, upholds rituals and music, and always believes in the Destiny of Heaven . He believes that people are born in this world for a reason, he himself was assigned by God the mission to contribute to building a society that values ​​morality and studiousness, and he has spent his whole life making efforts. for that mission.

He was kind, humble, simple, sincere, affectionate, peaceful but serious, majestic but not rough, respectful but at ease. He lived a frugal life, with respect and dignity. Confucius said, "When you eat raw rice, drink cold water, and when you sleep with your arms bent over your head, joy is also in it. As for using unwarranted methods to gain wealth and wealth, we consider it as the clouds float ." A man from Dat Xiang said, " Confucius is great, well-educated, but unfortunately he has no reputation! ". When Confucius heard it, he said to his disciples, " What do I do? Drive a chariot? Shoot arrows? I work as a charioteer!"When Confucius was at home, his appearance was very comfortable, his face showed a very nostalgic expression. When eating at home during mourning, Confucius never ate to his fullness. Every day Confucius went to visit a funeral, During that day, he did not play and sing anymore. He treated his students with love like a father to his son, and the students respected him like their second father.In the teacher-student relationship, he was close to him. them and was very sincere.He once said to his students, " Do you think I still have something to hide from you? I'm not hiding anything. I have nothing to do without telling you. I, Kongqiu am such a person.” The three things that Confucius was very careful about were sex, war, and disease.

He was a wise man of ancient metal, but never claimed to be a man of much knowledge, he knew that one's knowledge is only a grain of sand compared to the treasure of human knowledge. Confucius said, "Do I have a lot of knowledge? No! I don't know much. A farmer asked me a question that I didn't know at first, but I turned the two sides of the problem over and over again, Think about it, find out, and then explain it to that person clearly ." Confucius used to talk about the Book of Poetry, the Book of the Book, and the practice of the Liturgy, all of which are elegant. Confucius rarely talked about benefits, the destiny of heaven and humanity, never discussed strange things, violence, rebellion, ghosts and gods. Tu Lo asked about the sacrifice to the devil. Confucius said, "If you do n't know how to worship people, how can you serve ghosts and gods? "I dare to ask you about the morality of death ." Confucius said, "If you do n't know the principle of life, how can you know the principle of death? "

Once someone pointed out the mistake of Confucius, he said, " I am lucky, if there is a mistake, people will know ". Confucius was an expert in music. He said, " When the new musician Chi became a mandarin, he played a popular piece of music according to Quan Thu's poem, until the last part, the music was abundant, it was fun to listen to, it was very convenient! ".

He lived in a time when the social order had deteriorated, the vassals encroached on the rights of the sons of the gods, the great ministers usurped the vassal thrones, leading to chaotic scenes of killing and killing, without morality and discipline. Heartbroken at this scene, Confucius lamented: " The backward Yi Di ethnic groups on the border still have a king, unlike the Huaxia ethnic groups in the Central Highlands, it is as if there is no king at all! ". He wishes to re-establish social order, make people better, treat each other with harmony and friendliness. Confucius once confided to a student, "My wish is for the elderly to be fully nourished, friends to trust each other, and children to be cared for ". That's why he always wanted to use his talents to help the country and the world. Confucius said "If someone appoints me as a state manager, one year is enough, three years will definitely have more achievements. " He himself preferred a comfortable life, freedom and freedom. Tu asked about the aspiration of his student, Tang Tich, who said, " In late March, wearing spring clothes, meeting with five or six young people, six or seven children to the Nghi River to swim, swim, cool off, go to the radio. Vu Vu danced to catch the wind, and returned home while walking, soaking in the bay ." Confucius lamented, " I agree with your way of thinking ".

Throughout his life of teaching, writing books and traveling, Confucius always asked himself: " Silently remember what has been learned; persevere in learning without getting bored, and teach others tirelessly. Which of these three things have I done? ", " At court, we respect public officials; at home, we are filial to our father; when we are in mourning, we dare not have proper rituals; and we cannot drink alcohol. to the point of being so drunk that I blurted out. Can I do any of those things? " He said, " Virtue is not cultivated, education is not explained, seeing what is righteous is not doing, having wrongs and refusing to correct, these are our worries ". His life motto is " Make a will for the cause, uphold virtue, follow benevolence,". Confucius narrated his life:

- Thirty years old (30 years old can be independent)

- Four decades old (40 years old can understand everything in the world, have a clear opinion, be consistent, no longer doubt about the reason for their life).

- Five decades of divine destiny (50 years old can understand the truth of creation, know the trend of the times)

- Sixteen children at the age of 60 (60 years old, when they reach the perfect level of knowledge and life experience, no longer see the eyes and ears).

- Seventeen children obey the desire to not resist ( at 70 years old, the mentality and morality have merged, thinking and doing do not violate the rules, do not let desires dominate).

The book Trung Dung says about Confucius: " Confucius worshiped and followed the ethics of King Yao and King Shun; followed and clarified the rules of King Van Vuong, King Vu Vuong, in accordance with heaven and earth, and under geographical conditions. German Confucius as great as heaven and earth, nothing can not contain, no anything not protected; re like four seasons alternately rotated, like the sun, the moon turns to shine , "and he pointed humbly self-confessed, " A village with a dozen houses must have a faithful person like me, except that I am not as eager to learn as I am . I am not a person who was born knowing everything, but because of my admiration for the old religion, should study diligently and acquire knowledge like today .In terms of cultural knowledge, we are only equal to others. If we talk about being a gentleman who cultivates himself and practices the Way in practice, we still haven't done much . If you put on me two words saint, I dare not accept. But following the work of saints and people, we have never been bored, teaching students has never been tired, that's all. ".

Teaching

In the Analects , Confucius considers himself a " one who transmits what is already there without inventing anything else" . He places great emphasis on the importance of learning , and the opening chapter of The Analects also deals with learning. Therefore, he is considered by the Chinese as the Great Master. Instead of seeking to construct a systematic theory of life and society , he wanted his disciples to think deeply for themselves and quietly study the outside world, mainly through Roll of old and through the past events related (such as the Spring and Autumn ) or the sentiments of the people in the past (as of Poetry ).

Confucius's teaching was mainly to clarify the virtues of people, not to focus on the transmission of knowledge. This is a very good educational method to open the mind of man. Modern education, many places do the opposite: focus on the transmission of knowledge, not on moral education and lifestyle, so the mind of students is not expanded, making them easy to become bad guys. . That is something that Confucius is very taboo, he considers it to teach tricks, not teach people.

Statue of Confucius in the Temple of Literature - Quoc Tu Giam in Hanoi, Vietnam, was made in 1729.

Confucius considered teaching to seek the interests of the people, not for personal gain. He said, " As long as I personally offer a string of dried meat as an application, I have never refused anyone to be my student ". The content of Confucius' education for students has four aspects: literature, conduct, loyalty, and faith. It is very difficult for the people of Ho Huong village to talk to each other. A child from that village went to see Confucius and asked to study. Confucius's disciples felt doubtful or confused. Confucius said, " I approve of their progressive side, not their weak side. There is no need to overdo them. When pure and good people come to you, you should approve of good purity. their beauty, don't keep chasing after their past ".

In an age of division, chaos and endless wars between vassal countries , he wanted to re-establish Thien Manh so that he could unify "under the heavens", everything under the sky (here, China. nation) and bring peace and prosperity to the people. Confucius is therefore often seen as a proponent of conservatism , but a closer examination of his proposals reveals that he used (and possibly deliberately distorted) institutions and rituals in his life. to create a new political system of its own. He dreamed of the restoration of a unified kingdom in which kings must be chosen according to moral merit (such as King Yao , King Shun, etc.).) rather than by lineage. Rulers must act for the people, and they must reach perfection . Such a king could use his morality to educate the people instead of imposing them with laws and regulations.

Many aspects of Confucius' thought are still handed down and promoted to this day. Having that permanence lies in Confucius's passion for learning and serious attitude towards learning. He said: "I go to school to learn for myself, to show my dignity, not to show off to others. I'm just worried about not being able to do things worth knowing, not worrying about people not knowing. myself" . According to him, if you don't study, it's okay to learn"Study widely, ask carefully; think carefully, distinguish clearly, do your best. There are things that you don't learn, but you have to learn something, you have to study for the term. Some things don't ask, but when you do, you have to ask. If you don't think about something, you have to think about it. Some things you don't distinguish, but you have to distinguish something, you have to make it clear. There are things you didn't do but did. Whatever you do, you have to try your best to make it right... If you can follow that path, you will become bright even if you are stupid, and if you are weak, you will also become healthy" .

Confucius also emphasized on what he called "Rites and Music" , seeing the two as pillars of balance for order and harmony . Ceremonies are the requirements and rules in the treatment of people; and Music(music, art) is to unify all hearts together in joy, also to preserve virtue. He added that the ceremony is not just about sacrifice, and music is more than just the sound of sticks hitting bells. Both are also ways of communicating between a person's benevolence and his social situation; both of those factors strengthen social relationships, like the Five Thuong(five major relationships): military (my king), father (father and son), spouse (husband and wife), brother (brother) and friend (friend). The responsibilities are always balanced, and if a subject must obey the king, the subject must also intervene when the king is wrong.

Confucius focused on cultivating personal morality first, then raising his family, and then ruling the world with benevolence: "Cultivate the body, the Qi family, rule the country, and Binh Thien under" . He emphasized on the Five often: "Humanity, Righteousness, Le, Tri, Faith" . Humanity is charity, that is, fulfilling duties, ceremony is the hierarchy or rules in dealing with people above and below, wisdom is wisdom that has to think about whatever you do. is the sincerity to do what is said. One should keep those five religions as usual, not to be confused.

Confucius' teachings were later systematized by his disciples into a detailed set of rules and rituals. Centuries after his death, both Mencius and Xunzi wrote important books, and by that time a philosophy was fully established, called Confucianism . After more than 1,500 years, scholar Chu Hi interpreted Confucian ideas in a completely new way, known as Neo-Confucianism , to distinguish it from those in the Analects. Neo-Confucianism had a profound influence in China, Korea , Vietnam and many other Asian countries until the 20th century.

Sima Thien commented on Confucius: "In the 'Poetry' Sutra, there is a saying that goes like this: 'That which is like a high mountain makes one admire, that which is like the great Tao makes one obey. From time immemorial, in the world, there are many kings and virtuous people. They were all glorious while they were alive, but when they died, there was nothing left. Confucius was an ordinary man, but those who read the books respected him as a teacher. From Thien Son, Vuong Hau to the people of the whole country, those who talk about "Luc Nghe" consider that doctrine of Confucius as the highest standard. It can be said that Confucius is an unsurpassed sage . "

Methods of education

One of Confucius' most profound teachings, one of the most difficult to understand from a Western perspective, may be his use of aphorisms rather than directly explaining manners to his disciples. . His morality can be considered as one of the highest. Teaching "indirect" is used a lot in his lectures, through the allusion , innuendo , and even a tautology . This explains why it is important to put his lectures in the right context when researching. An example is the following story:

Coming home from court, hearing the news that the stable was on fire, Confucius said, "Is anyone hurt?" He never asked about Horses.

The story is not long, but of great importance. In his day, a horse could cost 10 times more than a slave. When he didn't ask about horses, Confucius showed his greatest concern: people. Thus, according to many commentators both East and West, the teachings of Confucius can be seen as a Chinese variant of Humanism .

Tomb of Confucius at Qu Fu , his hometown. Confucius Temple , the tomb of Confucius and the Confucian their church is now a world heritage site by UNESCO recognition.

Perhaps his most famous lecture was the Golden Rule : Tzu Kung asked, "Is there a single word that can guide lifelong behavior?". The teacher replied: "Perhaps it's the word Thu (恕)? If you don't want it, don't do it for others?". What we don't want, don't force people to suffer, is called something.

In the process of education, Confucius emphasized: both teachers and students have great obligations to each other. Students must respect the teacher, no matter how successful or important they are in the future, they must not abandon their politeness and respect. On the contrary, a teacher must have a role model to set an example for his students. The teacher has courage and morality, so he can train students who are useful to the country. In the history of Vietnam, there is a story that: Pham Su Manh, after passing the pass, became a great mandarin at the court, and returned to visit his teacher, Chu Van An.. Along the way through the market where the meeting was taking place, he commanded the soldiers to tell the people to clear the road. Knowing the story, Chu Van An was angry with Pham Su Manh as an official but was bossy to the people, disobeying his teacher's instructions, so he was not allowed to meet. Even though he was a great court official, Pham Su Manh still had to kneel all day in front of his teacher's door to apologize, and later also humbly did not dare to be bossy anymore.

Outline of Confucianism

Righteousness and Humanity. Confucius used all his knowledge, ideals and energy to promote his theory of "Righteousness", using it as the basis for establishing a good order for society, and at the same time paying attention to "Human" in what he did. related to being authentic. The result of his reflections on "Human" was the formation of a series of social rites: "Rites". Putting Nhan and Ritual into practice will naturally create a state of morality, tranquility and harmony.

Here we see that a key feature of Confucius's endeavor was to seek to establish rules governing righteous human action; rules are not based on assessing situations from the point of view of utilitarian pragmatism. If you wanted to be a gentleman, a title that was then used for men, you were determined to do what you considered right, regardless of the consequences for yourself.

Thus, we can summarize the content of Confucius's teaching into the following sentence: " Fu Zi teaches people four things: literature, virtue, honesty, and loyalty". ( Thesis , VII:25).

Early model of Chu

As outlined in the biography, Confucius was born into an aristocratic family despite its downfall. He used to work as a minor official such as Thua Dien, Commissioner, then a mandarin, a Dai Tu Khau, and then a minister of the State of Lu. For four years he held the judiciary, the country of Lu no longer robbed, robbed, sexually immoral, etc. In less than three months he held the position of general, thanks to his virtue and policies, the whole country was prosperous and peaceful. It may be said to have been slightly modified by posterity, as most famous stories are. Then, his strategies were no longer favored by the Hou Ho because the sovereign was inherently in love with wealth. From 497, Confucius left his hometown, spent 13 years traveling around the neighboring countries, "when in Tran while in Lu", trying to find a sovereign who would accept using him and his disciples to carry out his political ideology. his rule. Not getting good results, teachers and students pulled each other back to their homeland. There he spent the rest of his life taking care of education and culture.

Although considered the founder of Confucianism, Confucius claims that he did not introduce any new ideas, but merely transferred old traditions: “Confucius said: Only narrate [the way of the sages] without composing, sincerely believe and love old stories…” ( Argument , VII:1). That statement adds volume to Confucian thought and sets the bar for Confucianism: a respect for the wisdom of the past.

Confucius taught the Book of the Book and the Poetry as an illustration of the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty (1066-249 B.C.). Born in the Spring and Autumn period (770-476 B.C.), the small states constantly competed against each other, so he considered the two hundred years of the early Zhou period as a time of peace, prosperity and harmony. Therefore, he sought to re-establish the social organization and moral culture of that time, especially during the reigns of the two kings Van Vuong, Vo Vuong, and Zhou Cong's chief financial father.

Heaven

Referring to the spiritual or ultimate end of the world, Confucius used a simple word, Thien: heaven, from which one can call the sovereign of a country the son of heaven: son of heaven, because he has the duty to take care of him. trying to make everything right with the will of heaven and the nature of heaven: divine or divine.

Confucius considers his teachings on human and social qualities to be statements of God, because he teaches individual ways that each person can cultivate and practice to live in harmony with the universe as a whole. . However, he did not believe that man was capable of contemplating the nature of God; people just have to admit that there is God and continue to live in harmony with the way of heaven and heaven.

In other words, Confucius' point of view implies that we live in an ordered universe according to a certain structure, so to live meaningfully is to seek behavior that reflects order and structure. that bamboo. Once you understand the structure of the universe and live according to "the way of heaven", then you have morality. The word "dao" in "tiandao" is the key word of Confucianism and is almost synonymous with the word "dao", which is also key in Taoism, referring to the principle of nature - natural principles - as a right path that people must follow, a moral must be kept in life. Dao Duy Anh said that "Combined with virtue, it becomes morality: natural principles are moral, being in the hearts of people is virtue".

Compared with Western philosophy :

There is an interesting parallel here with the Natural Law approach to morality, proposed by Thomas Aquinas, and Aristotle's idea that all things have "ultimate cause", on which he placed basis for the theory of natural law. For Confucius, "Heavenly Way" is not a matter of personal taste but a given fact in the universe. Heavenly Dao is not something invented by man, but something that man discovers.

For Confucius and those who accepted the Natural Law, the evaluation of moral worth was not based on pragmatism or utilitarianism, but on the display of the fundamental structure and ultimate end. copy of the entire universe.

However, there is a significant difference between Aristotle and Confucius: the "ultimate cause" seems to be fixed, while the "Heavenly Way" is moving. Western philosophy tends to analyze the subject's experience into particular events and objects, while Chinese thought tends to look at shifts, trends, and interrelationships in the world. experience.

Analects

The Analects is mainly a book that collects moral teachings for self-discipline, a complete collection of human virtues required in life to achieve a harmonious life. The posterity can also find in that book the speech and gestures of Confucius and some of his disciples. The book was not compiled by one person, but consisted of the memories of Confucius's direct disciples and later disciples, and after many edits and corrections, it has the content we read today. Therefore, the book is written with a concise, rich and diverse style.

The final version of The Analects was completed around the beginning of the Warring States period. Since then, the book has become one of the important classics of Confucianism. It is also a basic document for scholars studying Confucius' doctrine or the history of ancient Chinese thought, culture, education and society.

In general, the content of the book is attributed to Confucius, but in it it is possible that some maxims predate him and others related to his disciples. Many sentences begin with "Tzu writes: Confucius speaks," but are clearly drawn from oral tradition.

In the Analects , there are a number of maxims of general application, such as: "Confucius said: Learning without thinking is dull, thinking without learning is tiring". (The Analects, II:15). “Confucius said: Attacking another religion is only harmful.” (The Analects , II:16). “Confucius said: A clever mouth, a bright face, such a person has few benevolence.” ( Thesis , I:3).

That word leads to the key word "Human". In a certain sense, everything in the Analects revolves around this single question: “What is true virtue? What is the true nature of man, and how should it be displayed?”

Humanity, according to the Analects , is a very practical and external display of human qualities. Confucius divided mankind into three classes:

1- Saint: A sage who manifests and transmits wisdom.

2- Gentleman: A noble person who strives to do what is right.

3- Small person: A "small person", acting without regard to morality.

While cultivating and practicing virtue, the perception of tradition and society is very important: “Huu Tu [anadept of Confucius] said: Be a filial person to love offending your superiors. such a rare thing, did not like to offend the superiors but liked to riot, which was unprecedented. A gentleman concentrates on the root, because the root is established, and the way arises by itself. Is filial piety and filial piety the root of that humane practice?" ( Thesis , I:2).

Confucius was concerned with the welfare of society, so he promoted a general benevolent attitude. Although that generosity was not universally offered by him, it was clearly based on the most valuable, and on loyalty to the family. And that is the point later criticized by Mac Tu.

Confucius said: When entering, you must be filial to your parents, when leaving, you must respect the elderly, work carefully and keep your faith, love everyone and be close to others. Spend your energy doing those things first and then studying literature.” ( Analects , I:6).

The above quote shows how Confucius brought up another key element of his thought, which is “literature: culture”. Studying literature for Confucius meant studying classical works collected from the early Zhou period such as Poetry, Letters, Rituals & Music, Translations, and especially his Spring and Autumn Sutras, a collection of concise headings. about historical events occurring in that era, approved by him in the light of the theory of legitimacy and fate. The study of literature, he said, is essential to the exploration and assimilation of traditional wisdom. And so, in the eyes of Confucius, the thought process must be placed within the relevant historical and cultural framework, which is the context in which it takes place.

For Confucius, just thinking is not enough, we should use our minds to learn. Being a studious man, he always saw learning as essential; it prevents human qualities from being obscured, leading to extremely false representations. “Confucius said: Hey Do [Tzu Lu's colloquial name: Trong Do] , have you heard of the six virtues, and the six coverings?

“Say: Not yet.

“Sit down here, I say to you: If you love benevolent things but are not eager to learn, then the cover up is foolishness. If you love wisdom but are not eager to learn, then the cover up is licentiousness. If you love the word of faith without being eager to learn, the cover-up is self-harm. If you love uprightness but are not eager to learn, then the cover up is impatience. If you love bravery but don't want to learn, the cover-up is chaos. If you love the rigor but don't want to learn, the cover-up is violence." ( Thesis , XVII:7).

In other words, the above list is a traditional and cultural assessment, used to test the potential for harmful action due to the failure to cultivate positive human qualities. Individual thought, assertiveness, and courage in themselves are neither good nor bad, but when expressed without cultural significance, they become dangerous.

Confucius, of course, acknowledges that every stage of life has its own peculiarities that are capable of interfering in particular with the process of spiritual development. Confucius said: A gentleman has three things to prevent: When young, the blood and energy are not stable, and need to be warned about female beauty. When you reach adulthood, your blood and energy are strong, you need to be warned about the desire to fight. In old age, the blood and qi have declined, and it is necessary to prevent the desire to be better than people." ( Thesis , XVI:7).

In the following quote, he uses the contrast between the "gentle man" and the "small man". This comparison is used many times, including in the liturgy and in the Middle Ages , as a way of highlighting the qualities that make up virtue. Confucius said: A gentleman is afraid of three things: fear of heaven, fear of great men, and fear of sages' words. The petty man does not know the destiny of heaven, so he is not afraid, (but also) despises the great man, mocking the words of the sage." ( Thesis , XVI:8). "Confucius said: A gentleman is close to everyone without being selfish, a petty person is selfish but not close to everyone." (The Analects , II:14). "'Confucius said: The gentleman is calm and peaceful, the petty man is restless and anxious. (Analects, VII.36). “Confucius said: A gentleman is calm but not arrogant, a petty man is arrogant but not tolerant.” (The Analects , XIII:26). "Confucius said: A gentleman seeks from himself, a petty man seeks from others." ( Thesis , XVII:20). Confucius said: The gentleman gets along with everyone but does not join anyone, the petty person joins everyone but does not get along with anyone. ( Thesis , XIII:23).

In general, it seems to Confucius, the standards by which an individual's action is judged are not based on whether it creates or does not benefit society as a whole. However, this position is not entirely impractical, rather, it is based on the view that it is the moral qualities that make a good ruler, and that they therefore need to be promoted by society as a whole. . He also sought to promote an open and balanced view of himself. For example: "Confucius said, 'Don't worry about not having a position, just worry about not having enough talent to get there. Don't worry that no one knows about it, just want to make it worth it for people to know." ( Thesis , IV:14). “Confucius said: “Simple over simplicity is rustic, and literary over simplicity is rigid. Poetry and simplicity are the same, to become a gentleman." (Analects , VI:16).

When dealing with society, individuals should be impartial and act for the welfare of society as a whole and not for their own interests. "Confucius said: A gentleman works for the world, not necessarily this way or that is not possible, just do it in accordance with the righteous path." (The Analects , IV:10). Confucius said: The gentleman is concerned with morality, the petty man is concerned with housing. The gentleman cares about rules, the petty man cares about grace." ( Analects , IV:11). “Confucius said, “If you follow your own interests, you will be hated by many people.” ( Thesis , IV:12).

Multiply

In Analects , there are two key terms that need to be understood and appreciated. It is Human and Feast.

Humanity is a moral quality that is both for self-cultivation and for loving others, in Confucian terms, Humanity is for disciplining and providing supplies. According to Confucius, Humanity is the heart of morality, from which all other virtues arise and converge. Humanity is the beginning and the culmination of the Way; Goodwill is Human. Thus, virtue is total and is an ideal wisdom. Tran Trong Kim wrote that: "The human character and the second character combined are a word that concurs, that is, it refers to the body and the common virtue that everyone has together as one. Therefore, if you understand the meaning of words and people , you will understand the unified principle of Confucianism” (the cited book, p.44).

In the Analects , scattered throughout the chapters, there are many sections that give many definitions of Humanity, as a way of expressing Confucius to suit the temperament and circumstances of the person being taught by him. Therefore, benevolent and generous; when it is filial piety; sometimes it means being loyal to people, meaning to the world, etc.… "Confucius said: Humanity is loving people" ( Analects , XII:22). “Confucius said: When at home, keep a modest appearance; when going to work do it respectfully; When dealing with people, stay loyal. Even if he goes to the eastern and northern tribes, he does not give up the three virtues of reverence, respect, and loyalty, thus he is a virtuous person. ( Thesis , XIII:19). Confucius said: You Yu[Zi Yu, his student] is truly an inhuman! The child was born for three years before the parents stopped holding it. Oh, three years of mourning is everyone's custom. Have you been indebted to your loving parents for three years?" ( Thesis , XVII:20). “Mr. Vi Tu had to leave the country and go, Mr. Co Tu had to be exiled as a slave, Mr. Ti Can had to die because of the king's fault. Confucius said, "There are three benefactors in the Yin Dynasty." ( Thesis , XVIII:1). “Tzu Zhang asked Confucius about the practice of Taoism. Confucius said: To be able to do five good things to everyone in the world is to practice benevolence. “Please ask about those things.Confucius said: It is reverence, tolerance, faithfulness, diligence, and grace. Respect is not contemptuous; tolerance is pleasing to all; faithful are trusted by people; diligence should work; If you have grace, it's easy to manipulate people." ( Thesis , XVII:6). “Confucius said: A gentleman knows what is right, a petty man knows what is beneficial.” ( Thesis , IV:16). “Truong Cung asked about human rights. Confucius said: Going out the door should be like receiving a great guest, governing the people should be like making a great sacrifice. What you do not want others to do to you, you should not do to others. Thus, there is no resentment in the country, and no one in the house is resentful." ( Analects , XII:2).“Confucius said: Is the benefactor far from me? If we want the benevolent, the benevolent will come to us.” ( Thesis , VII:27).

For Confucius, Nhan is the root of Ritual and Music, constituting the three basic virtues of a gentleman. “Confucius said: How can a person without benevolence use ritual? People who do not have humanity, how can they use music” (The Analects , III:3).

Ceremony

The word ceremony in the period before the Spring and Autumn period had the connotation of ritual rituals, and at the same time meant the rules of customs and habits recognized by the society. Moving on to Confucius, it also includes the authority of the rulers of the country and how to restrain the behavior of the people. For Confucius, the effect of Ritual serves four purposes:

1- Nurturing character so that emotions are respected, as a root for the humanitarian;

2- Keep emotions so that they are neutral;

3- Determining the right and wrong, the fraternal relationship, the order of upper and lower;

4- Moderate the vulgarity of human beings.

Confucius believed that only by observing the Ritual as the rules of social interaction can we achieve Humanity. As such, he followed a literary tradition that dates back to the early Zhou period, permeated by the sutras that he used as the basis of his teachings. Basically, it is ritual and ritual that balances life. “Confucius said: Being respectful but lacking in decency makes your body toil. Careful, but lacking in manners, becomes timid. Courage without respect becomes disorder. Righteousness without etiquette will become rude.” ( Thesis , VIII:2).

The ceremony binds people. The implementation of the Feast will place people to behave according to their position and function. “Ding Gong [i.e., Lu Ho, who used to respect Confucius] asked: How should the king order his servants, and how should this servant worship the king? "Confucius replied, 'The king commands his servants by sacrifice, and the servants are loyal to the king'. ( Thesis , III:17).

The ceremony to stabilize the culture of a country. Confucius said: The ceremony of the Xia Dynasty, I can say, but the ceremony of the Ji State is not enough evidence. The ceremony of the An dynasty, we can say, but the ceremony of the Song country is not enough evidence. The culture (of those two countries) is not sustainable enough. If it was enough, I could have used it as proof." ( Thesis , III:9).

To behave in a proper manner in a given situation, for example, for someone in mourning, can be a matter of formality and, therefore, a loss of innocence. However, it is intended to contribute to the formation of human perception, and thus, to increase one's virtue.

Along with a wholehearted promotion of diligence and courtesy on the part of the educated, Confucius' teachings were practical and mundane. For example, religious ceremonies involving the dead were judged by him in relation to their effect on the living, but not in terms of belief in the afterlife. Confucius repeatedly emphasized ceremony as a way to strengthen the social hierarchy. Each individual has a ceremony appropriate for his or her social status.

Righteous name

But you can only follow Mass if you know your place in the universal map of things. This is related to the policy of Righteousness, an important doctrine of Confucius, which goes hand in hand with Nhan. Legitimacy is both a philosophical argument about one's place in society and politics, and a warning about people's potential to misunderstand concepts. A gentleman who wants to "cultivate himself, keep his family, rule the country, and pacify the world", must strictly follow the theory of Righteous Name. The Analects book about the general application of Legitimacy theory is as follows:

“Tzu Lu said: If the king of Wei asked you to correct his political affairs, what would you do first?

“Confucius said: It is necessary to correct the name.

“Tzu Lu said: Is that true? You said it was unrealistic. Edit the main name for what to do?

“Confucius said: Do, you are so rustic! If a gentleman doesn't know something, don't say it quickly. If the name is not right, then the speech is not right; If the word is not right, the work will not be done. If the work is not successful, the ceremony and music will not flourish. If the ceremony and music are not popular, the punishment is not right. If the punishment is not right, the people will not know where to put their hands and feet. Therefore, when a gentleman declares a name, it must be worthy of his destinies; A gentleman is very reserved in his words and does not arbitrarily speak as he likes. (Thesis , XIII:3).

Not only helps to think correctly and behave correctly according to the "destiny" of each individual, the theory of Legitimacy is also extremely effective in governing the country and the people. “The Duke of Qi asked Confucius about politics. Confucius replied, "The king is the king, I am the me, the father is the father, the son is the son." ( Analects , XII:11).

“Ji Kang asked Confucius about politics. Confucius replied: Politics is doing things right. If you make people righteous, who dares not be upright?" (The Analects , XII:16). “Confucius said: If you are righteous, you will not make others do it; if you are not righteous, no one will follow you even if you are ordered.” ( Analects , XIII:6).

Not only actively applied by Confucius, who advocated the rule of virtue, the theory of Righteousness was later thoroughly applied by Han Fei of the tradition of the rule of law. He maintained that the concept must go hand in hand with reality and that the statements must be logically consistent. He illustrates his point with the example of a man who sells a beam and a contradiction. He both argues that the shield is impenetrable, and advertises that the spear can pierce anything. Han Fei points out that both arguments cannot be correct. And his example is becoming a classic of contradictory words.

Compared with Western philosophy:

Confucius' theory of Rites and Legitimacy has similarities with the social assessment of action in modern sociology. The followers of that faculty hold that every action is related to a social function and must be judged on that basis.

Confucius's Ethics

Much of the advice given by Confucius is extremely valuable for life. “Confucius said: There are three classes of friends that help us, and three classes of friends that harm us. You are upright, you are generous, you hear a lot, are friends that help us. You pretend to be, you are good at pampering, you are good at talking, are the ones who harm us.” ( Thesis , XVI:5). “Confucius said: There are three beneficial likings, there are three harmful likings. Loving ritual music, liking the good things of virtuous people, liking having many good friends, these three things are useful. Excessive enjoyment of pleasure, love of leisure, love of feasting, these three are harmful.” ( Thesis , XVI:5).

Coupled with the righteousness implied in Legitimacy - which involves a proper understanding of concepts so that they can be properly applied in practice - that advice from Confucius sets the tone for the moral tone of the interior. content of his teaching. His ethics can be seen clearly in the qualities of a gentleman and in his statements about virtue.

While duties and rites are set forth objectively, it must be recognized in particular that for Confucius and later thinkers in the Confucian tradition, the essence is the right motive. You should do the “right” thing, not because you want to earn the respect or approval of others, but just because it is right for the Mass, or because it naturally displays your own process of cultivating virtue. . Thus, Confucius' ethics is closely related to his view of human nature.

The Analects book tells of Confucius when a disciple asked to summarize his teachings: "Tzu Kung asked, 'Do you have a maxim to follow for the rest of your life? “Confucius said: Is that the word 'forgiveness'? What I don't want others to do to me, I don't do to others." ( Thesis , XV:24). We can also add a quote from the Analects to summarize the early stages of Confucianism: "Confucius said: One should put one's mind to the Way , master virtue, follow benevolence, and delight in the six arts." ( Thesis , VII:6).

Spread beneath the aforementioned maxims of Confucius is the idea of ​​destiny: "the destiny of heaven". According to Confucius, there is a fundamental order of the universe from which we cannot escape its manifestations, because, as mentioned above, it is something for us to discover, not something we have invented. On the other hand, understanding that inevitability makes it possible to see what can be changed and cultivated. The last sentence of the Analects sums up everything related to the process of following the Tao: "Confucius said: If you don't know the will of heaven, you know what to do as a human. If you don't know Le, you know what to get to establish yourself. If you can't tell right from wrong, how can you know someone?" ( Thesis , XX:3).

Compared with Western philosophy:

Confucius's maxim, "The first is not lustful, a man is a man" and his requirement of a gentleman to act in a righteous way, for its own sake, regardless of the consequences, have similarities with Western thought. West, at least in three places:

1- The feeling of absolute moral obligation is known as Kant's "unconditional imperative".

2- Kant's short sentence on the motives of moral behavior: Act only on the principle (or maxim) that you can, so that it immediately becomes a universal law.

3- In particular, the "Golden Rule'" of Christianity, taken from the words of Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount: "As you want people to treat you, you should treat them as they are. that's it" (Luke: 6:31).

Discussing divination

At this point, we can open a parenthesis to refer to divination, a subheading that is more or less related to the idea of ​​"heaven's will, heaven's destiny" and a classic of Chinese thought. In Chinese thought, the I Ching has a very special importance. It contains philosophical views about the changes of the universe and human life, and it is also used as a book of divination. Therefore, Chiem divination (divination), along with facial features (reading signs) had an important place in ancient Chinese society. Kings and officials, as well as scholars and commoners, use them to speculate on fate, to find ways to foretell good and bad.

There are many means to see omens: yarrow, tortoise shell, animal bones, celestial stars, human face, drawing cards, divination, chess, card reading, dream interpretation, natural disasters, etc. The translation for fortune-telling is the I Ching . In Chinese letters , you (32-92) section lists the types of divination, up to 190 schools, nearly 2,528 volumes. Book

The history of Sima Thien (145-89 BC) also has several books and many stories about divination. The main purpose of divination is to predict what will happen in the future, good or bad, good or bad, favorable or unfavorable on the basis of perceptions of the changing process taking place in the present. Whether the prediction is right or wrong, we cannot help but acknowledge its influence on the process of shaping the future of the believer or the course of action of that person before an event, making it possible to turn around. change the flow of events.Indeed, wanting to know what we should do - and thus know how we can influence the future - is the most important reason when we turn to divination. Therefore, divination is not the same thing as deterministic destiny. The future is not fixed and therefore it can be subject to wise predictions. Thus, divination also has its limited usefulness, as an attempt to collect data to contribute to the "wisdom of destiny".

Two realms of heaven and earth

In contemplating what is stated in the Analects , it is important to acknowledge that in Confucianism there is a matter of natural harmony between heaven and earth. This is not a mythical distinction. For Confucianism, there is no separate world of God or gods, no "heaven" world separate from the "earth" world so that those on the lower earth must actively follow or compete. compete with what is in the sky. Rather, the word "heaven" in Confucianism refers to an ideal and spiritual order, and "earth" is the way in which all things exist here and now.

That is why Chinese philosophy easily integrates metaphysical ideas with social and moral concepts. Heaven and earth may be very different in quality, but they are not two separate realms.

Authority basis

In the spirit of philosophical inquiry, one should not hesitate in the slightest to ask: "On what authoritative basis is Confucius' doctrine and teaching based?"

The answer was given by Confucius himself. He acknowledged that none of the teachings he spoke came from him. He "doesn't work: just retelling, not posing". He considers himself merely an expositor of traditional teachings, especially those collected in the past and reflecting early Zhou life. For Confucius, his authority was the traditionality of what he imparted, and its validity is justified by the fruit of the era that produced it: the two hundred years of the early Zhou period, the king of Wen. King Vu and Chu Cong followed its morality, so peace and prosperity reigned, different from heaven and earth with the chaotic Spring and Autumn period, moral decadence. It is interesting to contrast and highlight the contrast between Confucianism of Confucius and Taoism of Lao Tzu on the origin of valuable knowledge.

Lao Tzu wrote in the Tao Te Ching , chapter 47: "Do not go out of the door to know the affairs of the world. Do not look outside the door but see the Way of Heaven. The further you go, the less you know. Therefore, the sage knows without walking, without seeing, understands, without doing, he should" (translated by Nguyen Duy Can). According to that passage, we can say that the basic approach of Lao Tzu, as we call it in the West, is idealist. You start with a concept that you intuitively perceive or accept as a logical argument, and then you make your observations or opinions about past or present social reality. proof basis for that pre-established concept.

In contrast, Confucius bases his argument on the observation of actual societies and on the acceptance of the traditions handed down within them.

Published under Blog on 19 June, 2021.

Latest update on 23 July, 2021.
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