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19 June, 2021

Brahmanism - World History Encyclopedia

Brahmanism - World History Encyclopedia

Brahmanism is an ideology and a way of life, originating from the history of the Vedas, often called a philosophy, practised on the basis of specific inferred beliefs.


Brahmanism, also known as Proto-Hinduism, was an early religion in the Indian sub-continent that was based on Vedic writing. It is considered an early form of Hinduism. ... In Brahmanism, the Brahmins, who included priests, performed the sacred offices required in the Vedas.

Statue of the elephant-headed goddess 'Lord Ganpatni'

Brahmin is a transliteration of the Sanskrit word: Brahma.

Brahminism is a very ancient religion of India, appearing before the time of Buddha Shakyamuni.

Brahminism originates from the Vedic religion (also transliterated as Vedaism) in India, the oldest religion of mankind.

Brahminism developed until the first century AD, when it turned into Hinduism.

Famous architectural works of India and Southeast Asian countries such as Konarac, Kharujaho, Mahabalipuram, Angkor Watt, Loro Jong Grang, Cham Towers in Vietnam and many great Indian philosophical works such as Ramayana, Mahabharata , were born on the basis of Brahmanism.

Konarack Temple, Mahabalipuram and Angkor Watt

We examine Vedicism, Brahminism and Hinduism in turn.

Vedic religion

This is an ancient religion of India and the oldest of mankind. Called Vedic religion because this religion built its doctrine on the Vedas. (Véda: Transliteration of Veda or Veda, meaning Understanding).

Vedic worship of nature, consisting of many beliefs, rituals, and incantations, attributed to the legends of the Dravidian aboriginal blacks of peninsular India, combined with the beliefs of the white peoples from The Northwest came to invade, especially the white Aryans, who invaded northern India, about 1550 years ago.

The Vedas written in Sanskrit, of the Aryans, consists of 4 volumes, including songs praising the Gods, prayers, ritual sacrifices and secret incantations, listed as follows: :

1.1. Rig Veda

Adapted from the translation, Rig Véda means Commentary on Praise (praise), formed in the 20th century BC (BC), including 10 volumes, a collection of songs praising the Gods. 1028 articles.

Sama Veda

Adapted from the translation, Sama Véda means Commentary on the Canticles, formed in the 10th century BC, including songs used to sing during sacrifices, a total of 1549 songs.

Yayur Veda

Adapted from the translation, Yayur Véda means Commentary on the sacrifices and prayers, which includes prayers in the ritual ritual.

The three types of Vedas above are used during the ceremony, and are chanted by the clergy at their discretion.

Atharva Veda

Collection of spells, unrelated to sacrifice, formed in the 10th century BC, totaling 20 volumes. Although mainly copied spells and incantations, but interspersed with scientific articles that laid the foundation for later Astronomy and Medicine.

The four Vedas above, later all have books written in Sanskrit with separate explanations for each.

The basic teaching of Vedic religion is that humans are constantly in relationship with God and have harmony with the universe. Therefore, only by making sacrifices and praying for islands, people will be blessed by the Gods in all their work. Along with the prayers were great sacrifices. Sacrificial items such as: Meat, butter, milk, wine, are offered to the Gods by burning on the pyre.

The sacrifice to the gods was very important, so gradually the group of priests became the most important, prestigious and powerful in Indian society, forming the Brahmin clergy later.

Brahminism

Brahminism was formed on the basis of Vedic religion, about 800 years ago BC, which is not a very long time before Shakyamuni Buddha opened Buddhism in India.

The Brahmins give explanations and commentaries on the Vedas such as: the Brahmana Sutra, the Upanishad Sutra, the Explanation of Maya (i.e. the World of Illusion) and on Nirvana.

Brahmanism worships Brahma, the supreme being, the soul of the universe.

Social class division

Brahmanism divides Indian society into five classes. Whoever is born into a class must stay in that class for the rest of his life.

The first class is the Brahmin monks

They consider themselves to be born from the mouth of the Brahma (Brahma), so they have the right to hold the highest position in society, exclusively offering sacrifices to God and the Gods.

The second class is the Emperor-Slayer

They were born from the shoulder of the Brahma. This class includes kings, nobles, bourgeois, public servants and ministers. They took power to rule and punish the people.

The third caste is the Vesak

They were born from the hip of the Brahma. This class consisted of merchants and wealthy ranchers. They hold economics, trade and trade expertise with all classes of people in society.

The fourth class is Thu-Da-La

They were born from the feet of the Brahma. This class consisted of poor farmers and workers.

The fifth caste is the Lamb-Da-La

This is the lowest class in Indian society, consisting of people who do lowly jobs such as: living, working, rowing boats, killing animals, etc.

The Brahmin clergy relied on religious influence to strengthen their position and interests. They find ways to protect and maintain the class system, follow myths, invent the Law of Manu, discriminate against classes, and do not allow marriage between two different classes.

Canonically

The Brahmin clergy is divided into 3 levels: Beginner, Middle and Upper.

- In the beginning were the monks who made regular offerings and those who served at the temple. They recited the first three Vedas, including: Rig Veda, Yayur Véda, Sama Veda. They perform rituals and witness sacrifices, so they are often directly with the people.

- The middle level are the monks of divination, prophecy, sometimes the Devil, sometimes they do some magic for the people to submit. This class reads and explains the fourth Veda, the Atharva Veda. This fourth Sutra has a higher content than the previous three and contains mantras.

- The upper class is the highest rank, including monks who are no longer directly with the people. This class specializes in the study of invisible forces in the universe.

Beginner Brahmin class has to study for 20 years to get to middle class . The middle class has to study for 20 years to get to the top class .

Above all is a monk who governs the religion as the Cardinal. This cardinal has 70 assistant teachers.

The Brahmin monks must keep the 10 Precepts:

1. Patience.

2. Do what is right (pay good for evil).

3. Moderation.

4. Honesty.

5. Keep yourself clean.

6. Master your senses.

7. Know well the Vedas.

8. Know the Brahma.

9. Speak the truth.

10. Keep yourself from getting angry.

Ashrama . theory

Ashrama theory about 4 stages that people must go through in order for earthly life to enter into religious practice, listed below:

Sanctum period

According to the teacher studying the Vedas, receiving religious training, the time is 12 years.

Residence period

Living a secular life at home, getting married and having children, doing professions in society to make a living. did not violate his duty as a Brahmin, to conduct family worship and to give alms.

Lam century

The housework is done, you or your wife take you to hermitage in the forest, live an ascetic life so that you can realize Brahma.

Padded centuries

Leaving home to travel to the four directions, living by receiving alms from people, the purpose is to achieve liberation of the soul.

Brahman and Atman

- Brahman is the supreme source of the universe, that is, the Great Self, the Great Universe, the Great Soul, now commonly called God.

- Atman is the ego of man, the Little Self, the Little Soul, the Little Universe. It is only a very small part of the detached Great Self. Therefore, Brahman and Atman are of the same nature, so they can collude with each other.

Cultivation is to achieve liberation of the soul from the afflictions associated with the physical plane to bring Atman back to union with Brahman.

The realization of this Truth is not through wisdom, but through the enlightenment of the whole being. If you can't be liberated, you won't be able to get rid of Karma, that is, you won't be able to get rid of Samsara, you will have to be reincarnated back into the physical world, life after life.

Karma - Reincarnation

Karma is created by a person's good and bad deeds, which will determine the reincarnation of that person's soul after death. If someone does good, the soul will be reincarnated into a human at a higher level, and possibly a God, and enter the Heavenly Way. If that person does a lot of evil, the soul will be reincarnated into the miserable lower classes, and may be punished with damnation.

The path to liberation is Meditation, but this path is too ascetic and few people can follow it, so most of the followers follow the worship of Gods, control their own desires and do charity work.

Hinduism

Hindu devotees flock to the temple in Batu Caves, Kuala Lumpur as the sun rises during the Thaipusam festival (left) . The Elephant Head Festival (Ganesh Chaturthi Festival-pictured right), which usually lasts 10 days, is one of the most important Hindu festivals in India, commemorating the birth of the elephant-headed god Ganesh. people. On the last day of the festival, the image of the god Ganesh is placed on a cart, carried through the cities before being dipped into a river, pond, or sea.

Brahminism is the state religion of India. But when Shakyamuni Buddha's Buddhism spread, the influence of Brahminism dwindled. Through many reforms to partly conform to the evolutionary trend of the people, in the first century AD, Brahmanism turned into Hinduism (in short, Hinduism) and is also known as Hinduism. HInduism.

In the 18th century , the word "Hindoo" ( Persian Hindu ) began to be used and finally, in the 19th century , the word "Hinduism" became very common. Thus the word "Hinduism" - translated as Hindu here - is not a self-proclaimed title of an Indian religion. But the name influenced the self-proclaimed neo-Hinduism of the 19th and 20th centuries because it suggested a religious unification during the Indian war for independence. and used to respond to today's divisive tendencies.

However, the word Hinduism can be misleading. When people started using it, it was based on two incorrect preconditions . The first is that it is believed to be a derivative of the Persian root Hindoo ( Hindu ) which refers to followers of a certain religion. The second is that all Indians are considered to be followers of this religion if they do not follow the other major religions, such as Islam , Catholicism , Judaism , Buddhism , Christianity . Both of the above prerequisites are misinterpreted. The Persian noun "Hindu" has only the equivalent meaning of the Greek word "Indian", and both are derived from the name of the great river India (Sanskrit : sindhu , Persian: hindu , Greek : Indós ), brought to the country it flows by this name: Hindus are people of origin from the country of India ( india ). Even when Persian-speaking Muslims invaded, distinguishing between Muslims and Hindus, it did not mean that all Hindus were followers of one religion.

Hinduism still retains the main features of Brahmanism, worshiping Brahma, later worshiping two more, Civa (Siva) and Vishnu or Christna.

- Brahma is the Creator God,

- The Civa is the God of Struggle,

- Lord Vishnu is the God of Preservation.

Together, these three are called the Trinity. (Cao Dai religion calls these 3 people Tam The Buddha, who governs 3 Nguon: Thuong Nguon, Trung Nguon and Ha Nguon, there is a statue placed on the roof of Bat Quai Dai, Tay Ninh Holy See).

Hinduism also worships other ancient Gods such as:

- God of Thunder Indra.

- Sun God Surya

- Fire god Agni

- Wind god Vayu.

- God of the air Varuna.

Hinduism maintains the same class division of society as Brahmanism.

Hinduism is divided into many sects, mainly with 2 major sects, Vishnu and Civa (Siva), and nurtures many philosophical sects, the most famous of which are 2 sects: Vedanta and Yoga.

In order to easily blend in with the masses, at this stage many rituals were simplified, and costly animal sacrifices were abolished. In the 19th and 20th centuries, some famous activists of Hinduism such as: Ram Mohan Roy, Rama Krishna, Viveka Nanda, made a major renovation to Hinduism, restoring basic values ​​and exclude backward and excessive elements from the thought of this Tao. It is thanks to the ability to adapt and change that Hinduism has always been the main religion of the Indians and has had a profound influence on all classes of people from time immemorial.

According to preliminary statistics in 1980, Hinduism today has up to 554 million adherents, most of whom are Indians.

In recent years, the international activities of Hinduism have been abundant:

In 1979 in Allahabad (India), 1980 in Colombo (Ceylon), in 1981 in Nepal, convened the World Congress of Hindus in turn to discuss difficult issues. of Hinduism, how Hinduism adapts to the civilized life of modern people, and establishes international relations between Hinduism and other religions in a friendly manner.

Hinduism

Hinduism is the name given to the major interrelated and existing branches of religion in India . About 80% of Indians consider themselves Hindus and it is thought that there are around 30 million Hindus living abroad.

The Batu Caves temple, in Kualalamper, Malaysia has the second tallest statue of Lord Murugan in the world, which attracts devotees during the Thaipusam festival.

The concept of Hinduism

Since the 16th century missionaries and travelers have often referred to the religion and customs of India and have often referred to these natives as "pagans" (en. pagan , de. Heiden ) if they did not claim to be "pagans" (en. pagan , de. Heiden ) . follow one of the major religions ( Christianity , Judaism or Islam ). The surname is known in Latin as gentiles , in Portuguese as gentio and from there in English as gentoo and in Dutch / German as Heyden ( Heiden ). Come In the 18th century the word "Hindoo" ( Persian Hindu ) began to be used and finally, in the 19th century , the word "Hinduism" became very common. Thus the word "Hinduism" - translated as Hindu here - is not a self-proclaimed title of an Indian religion. But the name influenced the self-proclaimed neo-Hinduism of the 19th and 20th centuries because it suggested a religious unification during the Indian war for independence. and used to respond to today's divisive tendencies.

Today, a wide range of Indian religions is known and research information is increasingly abundant. Therefore, the word "Hinduism", "Hinduism", can not mean a certain religion of the Indians, but just a way of calling it with a general meaning, only a group of religions that are related to each other, but different, comes from South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh). Although these religions are related to each other, they are as different as the difference between Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. They have different concepts of god, have different scriptures as well as different methods of practice and ritual performance. They have different theological systems, are based on different theologians, teachers, and worship the gods. as different as the Supreme God.

A common, but informal, and incorrect term used by Hindus is "Long-lasting Dharma". Other names such as Vedic Hinduism or Brahminism name only branches of Hinduism.

The Most Important Sects of Hinduism

The religion of the Indus Valley Civilization (which flourished around 2300-1750 BC ) can only be partially reconstructed from archaeological works. In general, interpretations of these monuments agree that elements of the Indus culture persisted and were partly absorbed by other classical Indian religions. The images on steatite ( talc ) seals in places like Mohenjodaro , Harappa and other settlements show tree deities, considered by researchers to be the forerunners of the Rakshas   and Ras. - Murder later. A form of the Divine Body  in the sitting posture of a yogi Yoga shows that it is possible that the origin of Yoga can be traced back to the time of the Indus civilization. A Divine Body was also found sitting among the beasts, known as the Beast Master , "the lord of the beasts" and - possibly wrongly - the forerunner of the god Napa. The image that is considered to be an erect penis of Low-she is probably just a loose belt, and because these gods carry equipment on their arms, archaeologists have not been able to determine whether this is a male or female figure. . Ritual bathing plays an important role as there are vestiges of elaborately built formal baths (possibly absorbed by later Indian religious branches in the form of temple ponds). . However, no traces of a temple were found. The lectures are within rock as penis Low-grandmother and vulva (the base of the stone rings) and terracotta female figures such as the Mother Goddesses are still conjecture.

Vedic Hinduism

A page of the Lekuveda vol. , edition of the Indologist Max Müller , presenting two verses of Puruṣasūkta, 10.90, with commentary by Sāyaṇa

As the oldest religion in India with surviving scriptures, Vedic Hinduism plays a special role in the study of India's religious history. This religion has many similarities with the Old Iranian religion and through the names of the gods, one can see the relationship with the Roman, Greek and Doan (ancient German) religions. In a contract document of the Mitanni (an Indo-Persian empire north of Mesopotamia ), the names of the Vedic gods are found such as Madala, Punna, Ren. -dala and the Ma Dong.

The Vedas are semi- nomadic tribes that have been introduced to India from the West and Northwest during the period 1700-1200 BC in several waves. They called themselves Nha-loi-an . Their religion belongs to the polytheistic system with the basis of religious rituals being sacrifices to gods. The person who performs the divine island prayer with a chant. The altar is solemnly set up with three types of fire, the sacrifice is performed by many different priests along with chants, sacrificial verses, and mantras . The sacrifices were Thomas, animals, melted butter, grain, and cooked food. Ancestors are also sacrificed. The Four Vedas are the earliest religious and poetic works of the Indo-European language family . In these four sets, Lekuveda plays a special role, consisting of ten mandalas  with 1028 chants of praise (hence also translated as Praise of the Commentary) . Lekuveda is considered to be the oldest source of texts recording the concepts of god and myths of the Nha-loan Veda people. The work of editing Lekuveda probably ended around 1000 B.C.E.

The four sets of the Vedas together with the Pham Thu (with contents specifying the chanting and ceremony), the Sam Lam Thu (with conjecture on metaphysical issues), as well as the Upanishads  are considered. are Revelation texts, that is, "shown by heaven". They greatly influenced later religious branches in India. Vedic Indians prayed to the gods for many children, health, prosperity, victory over enemies, a hundred years of life as well as forgiveness for transgressing cosmic laws or "truths" ", and after he died he went to heaven, the abode of Shakyamuni and other gods. The responsibilities of the devotees are: 1. studying the scriptures, keeping proper rituals, 2. making sacrifices to gods and ancestors, and 3. raising sons so that they can keep the tradition of sacrifices long.

"Brahminism" and new developments

The development of the Vedic religion in the direction of emphasizing purity in performing divine sacrifices brought about a specialization among the Brahmins during the period 1000-500 BC. It also excluded those of the lower ranks, mostly non-Nyanyans, slaves, from the practice of ritual and from the study of Vedas.

In the hands of the Brahmins, the discipline of sacrifice had become a science dealing with the relationship between the effective energy in the sacrificial process and the cosmic law. The relationships between the macrocosm and the microcosm, between the mantra and its associated energy and the object pointed to by the mantra, as well as between the sacrificial act and future events, all have led to to a concept that includes the world and the sacrifice in which people no longer need gods. This period of Vedas is also called Brahminism . During this time, one finds what was initially only briefly mentioned in the Pham Thu , and not long after that was clearly presented by the Upanishads : The concept of rebirth and the law of cause and effect ( karma).). This new teaching holds that good and bad deeds in this life will bear fruit in the next life, and as such, it also causes people to gradually withdraw from the original purpose of Vedas: One life being in heaven is no longer a final thing because that place is still subject to the law of rebirth and rebirth as well as karma. Thus, the place of liberation cannot be obtained from the gods and cannot be obtained through sacrifice. Liberation can only be realized through wisdom and the purpose of this realization is the state of immortality (sa. amṛtatva ), the basis of all existence: brahman , fully analogous to ātman , the small self . With this concept, the Vedic religion transcended its own shadow.

The meaning of the sacrifice was documented and the way opened for new reformed religious movements such as Buddhism , Jainism , as well as other branches of atheism (e.g. the Samadhi, see more). Hindu philosophy ), non-dualism and monotheistic religions. Some of the above-mentioned movements oppose the Brahmin's monopoly on the performance of rituals and the racial system in general.

The Vedic religion lost its leading position in North India in the last centuries BC, in South India in the first century. It still exists, but only to a limited extent, and exerts a certain influence in the field of philosophy in the form of Mimansai. After the discovery of the Vedas by European researchers and stimulated by their eagerness to trace, the Indians also returned to the Vedas with clear signs in the movement. Later Reformed Hinduism.

Low-class Hinduism

Theravada religion is a monotheistic religion with its basis derived from the assimilation of the Vedas deity and the transcendental god Nala-dina, as well as from the integration of some popular rituals, especially the worship of the Black God in North India between the 6th and 2nd centuries BC. The bhikkhu-no-na-lady-na is called the Old-Brahma - that is, the Blessed One - and the followers are called the Old-Brahma. It should be noted that the way of calling the Pisces-Slaves or the Pisces-Followers appeared only in the 5th century.

In the image of Black God, one can see the harmony of many sacrificial trends into one unit. Along with Bala-la-ma - a God with the features of the underworld as well as related to the custom of worshiping dragons and snakes and considered a brother - Black God was worshiped as a pair of gods and built a temple. . Black God is also worshiped in the group of Five Heroes, including Black God himself, his brother is Bala-la-ma, his two sons are Tam-ba, Dai Hung Kiet, and grandson is Ano-la-da in the Vrishni tribe. . After the removal of Tam-ba from this group, the representatives of one of the remaining two important groups - those of the Five Nights group - of the remaining four celestial beings took the first steps of the dispersal of the divine body. Supreme. Among the representatives of the second group, the Bac Gia Pham believers, the Black God Batudeba is considered to be the complete embodiment of Nala-Dienna. , is revered as the supreme deity. Around the 6th and 7th centuries, Pisces again gained an important place as having absorbed much of a trend of sun worship. Two cases Indian epic, Ramayana , depicting the life of the hero Rama , the embodiment of the god Ti-low-slaves , and the Mahabharata , including the entire Gita , helped popularize Ti-low-slave-teachers to Southeast Asian countries .

The two most important groups of the stilts are the Five Nights and the Bac Gia Pham. The Silver-Golden group adhered to the teachings of the former Brahminism while the Five Nights group was considered unorthodox. From the time of the Grade-da dynasty (c. 5), the boundary between these two groups has blurred. The important groups that came after and survive to this day are the Śrīsaṃpradāya group, which has its roots in the Lamaanda's doctrine of Non - dual Limitation (1055-1137) and is divided into various sub-branches; Brahmasaṃpradāya group with the dualistic doctrine of Madhva (~1238-1317); the Rudrasaṃpradāya group following Viṣṇusvāmin's pure Non-Dualism with two branches established by Vallabha and Caitanya; and the Sanakādisaṃpradāya group, founded by Nimbārka, according to the doctrine of Duality and Non-Dualism. Today, theravada Buddhism is considered one of the two most important Indian religious movements along with the Mahayana .

Hinayana Hinduism

Theravada is a religion that is largely monotheistic, but some branches favor a dualistic Low-madam-Spiritual relationship or acknowledging pluralism with many eternal souls. This religion also derives from a relationship with a god mentioned in the Vedic scriptures, Lo-dala. Lo-dala is described as violent and dangerous. He ruled the field of disease and healing; His arrows are the worries of other gods and storms, the embodiment of the wind god (Wind God), are seen as phenomena that follow him. Low-she, translated as "auspicious", "good", is a euphemism used to postpone reconciliation with this fierce god. He is called the Self at the Master, the Great Self at the Master.

According to the highest teaching, the low woman in the supreme form does not carry any attributes and is identical with the Brahma of the Vedanta system. In terms of personality, she has attributes, including two principles of male as well as female. The female principle is expressed through force, which is an active factor in God's perception, will, action, self-concealment and grace. In mythology, the female principle is considered to be the wife of the god Low-Ba, the calm and gentle form is the goddess Tuyet Son, and the angry or destructive form is Do-er-ca.

It is the low goddess who appears in myths as a yogi or a god who subjugates demons and wreaks havoc on the world. The two images are related to the path of liberation of the followers of the Low School teacher. The path comes from worshiping the goddess Low-she, through meditation to liberation from the bonds of the individual spirituality that takes on the form of the world. Then this spirit attains the supreme consciousness of the supreme being. The fetters arise from attachment to matter and through that, the limitless intellectual capacity and activity of the supreme mind is maximally limited by the following factors: Time, space, and human law. effects, limits of perception, limits of knowledge and ability to act. Through the encirclement that darkens the mind, the diversity and variety of phenomena appear, replace the oneness in the supreme consciousness of all existences. The eradication of this manifold - and thus also the eradication of the world through the grace of the god - is accomplished by the eruption of liberating knowledge, breaking the veil of ignorance

The most important idol of the Low-madam is the Liṅga, which is considered a symbol of the penis. The holy scriptures include the Ahammas and the Draculas . Over time, the lowly teacher absorbed a host of other independent cult traditions, among them the worship of the war gods Skanda and Gaṇeśa (both considered to be children of her), the Worshiping snakes and dragons is part of the tradition of worshiping the sun and many other local gods and rituals.

There are different schools in the Low-school teacher. The Beast Lord school held an important place in the early days with its ascetic style, provocative isolation from society. From this sect developed several sub-branches with very extreme views, such as the Kāpālika branch. In contrast, the Baba Worshipers followed very early Brahmin customs. Both schools emphasize the practice of Yoga and have greatly contributed to its development. Controlling yoga or Kuṇḍalin du-jadeveloped by the Nātha branch in northeastern India. In South India, the Belief movement led to the revival of the Low-Madam. In parallel with the Agamas and Vedic thought contacts, the devotional chants of the Nāyanār group are also considered to be the origin of the self-proclaimed suttas. the ultimate completion of the low-teacher.

In the 12th century, another school, the Vīraśaiva, appeared, which contained a sizable element of social reform. Under the influence of the doctrine of Non-dual-Vedanta , the Kashmiri school of women was founded in the 8th century, emphasizing the fusion of faith and Dhyana into a monistic teaching. Theravada Buddhism still exerts a great influence on Indian society and, along with the Pisces, it is still the largest and most important branch of Hinduism.

Force Hindu

Holding the cult center position of the Virtue School, this Goddess of Virtue only perceives and acts, creates, preserves and destroys the world, fulfills, grants, and liberates. The Goddess of Force is the synthesis of all the powers, that is, the power of all the gods, especially the goddess Rhythmah and the Servant.

Historically, the force religion came from tribal religious movements. There is a theory that the force religion may have originated from the worship of the Goddess of the Indus Valley Civilization, but this theory has not been conclusively proven. From the first centuries C.E., the sage was integrated into the low-school teacher, and from about the sixth century AD it gained importance again with the support of the brahmin tradition, later re-identified. Killing-for-profit (kingdom and military race) worshiped as the goddess of war. But only since the 10th century did the Goddess of Virtue surpass other masculine deities, especially the Low Lady, and from here on, the male-female relationship is reversed: Without the Goddess of Virtue, the relationship is reversed. other gods are no longer able to perceive and function. Over time, the Tinh force religion absorbed many traditions of worshiping local goddesses, integrating them into the tradition of worshiping Goddess Do-erka or Kali  and thereby, made a great contribution to the worship of goddesses. the Hinduization of tribal beliefs. To this day, the force religion still holds an important place in religious life in India. In parallel with the sets of Da-de-laAlong with the low-class teacher, the Tinh force religion also has its own sacred scriptures, which have appeared since the 10th century. The worship of the Goddess of the Force includes the sacrifice of animals (fish, rooster, goat, cows), even humans until the time of the British Empire. The practice includes dartala rituals with mantras and secret symbols, sometimes including tantric ritual intercourse .

Hinduism Non-dual Vedanta monistic

The monistic Vedanta Non-Dualism also developed into a separate sect. The most outstanding representative of this sect was Thuong-yet-la , who, according to legend, lived around 788-820 (according to modern researchers, it must have been about 100 years before that). The three starting points of Thuong-yet-la are the Upanishads , Chi Ton ca .and the Pham Sutras. On this basis, Thuong Yeh-la established a worldview and a doctrine that liberated away from the views of previous Vedas: The world, together with the gods, is the product of illusion. image is an illusion. Only Brahma possesses supreme reality and Brahma identifies with the small self. From the assimilation of Brahma and the minor self, Thuong-yet-la concludes that there are no individual souls. All varieties are fictitious, have only temporary value, are only relative realities. Diversity disappears when ultimate wisdom leads the individual mind to merge with Brahma and thus leads to liberation. The Vedanta non-dual had a great influence on the Mahayana, having made its mark in the Kashmir branch. The non-dual Vedanta was greatly modified by the Vedas, for example in the Lamaanda's doctrine of Non-dual Limitation. But the highlight of this Vedanta Non-Dualism is that it greatly influenced the later Neo-Hindu movement.

New Hinduism

Neo -hinduism, started as a reform movement, has greatly contributed to the Indian independence movement in the 19th and 20th centuries and is especially popular in the world. urban elite. However, early New Hinduism showed a very strong synergistic tendency, seeking to fuse Indian religious traditions and to follow them with concepts and ideals derived from Christianity and Islam . This movement manifests itself in many forms - locally as well as nationally - and the most significant branches are:

- Brāhma Samāj ("Pham Hoi "), founded by Rām Mohan Roy (1772-1833) in 1828, later bearing the imprint of two leaders Devendranāth Tagore (1817-1905, father of Rabindranath Tagore ) and Keshab Chandra Sen(1838–1884). Brāhma Samāj rejected the Indian racial system as well as the extreme beliefs of the Hindu tradition such as the cremation of widows ( satī ), opposed to idolatry. In general, Brāhma Samāj's moral and practical views are strongly influenced by Christianity.

- Ārya Samāj ("Church"), founded in 1875 by Dayānanda Sarasvati. This group is based solely on the Vedic scriptures , but uses it in a very selective way. The doctrine of not worshiping idols, though influenced by Christianity, is interpreted in Vedic terms. In general, Ārya Samāj sought to confront Christian missionaries with an equivalent religious tradition, specifically Indian.

- Rāmakṛṣṇa ("Black Lama"), founded in 1897 by Svāmī Vivekānanda (1863-1902) in memory of his guru, Rāmakṛṣṇa Paramahaṃsa (1836-1886). On the basis of the Vedanta Non-dualistic, all religions are seen as paths leading to the ultimate goal although they are viewed as inferior because of their attachment to lower realities. From Christianity, the Rāmakṛṣṇa association absorbed social work participants, but interpreted it in terms of Indian traditions as they were recorded in the Supreme hymn and the doctrine of karma .

The branches of Indian missionaryism led by the "Gurus" of Indian origin in the West can be listed as New Hinduism. In India, New Hinduism itself tend vulnerable by materialism ( materialism ) and all agnosticism ( agnosticism ) of the West rather than the two religions have a long tradition as Low -the teacher and the lowly-slave .

Influence on other religions

Sikhism , Jainism, and Buddhism are referred to by Indian law as Hinduism, but are recognized worldwide as independent religions .

The common basis of the branches of Hinduism

Because they come from closely related traditions, continuously influence each other, and develop long-term in an environment, under almost the same political, social and economic conditions, all the Indian religious branches all bear very clear similarities.

Reincarnation

Belonging to the common basic points is the samsaric view , which is to acknowledge the phenomena of the coming, staying, falling, and passing away of the cyclical phenomenal world. With it, one finds a great appreciation of the source, which is considered pure and perfect. From there comes an upstream moral assessment: The world does not progress over time but only decays until a god determines a new starting point. In the middle stage, morality declines, wisdom declines. Humanity is currently living in the end of the world, the last of the four periods of this life. This view in turn gives rise to a traditional reverence. Traditional knowledge is revered and preserved with age despite the fact that it has been replaced by new knowledge. Thereby one can understand why all Hindus revere the Vedas despite the fact they hardly know them nor need them in their teachings or practice.

Along with the theory of reincarnation is the theory of reincarnation and the theory of causality . All the higher religious traditions from the Indian subcontinent - including Buddhism and Jainism - accept this theory, although there are some variations in it. This theory requires education, so it affects only the middle and upper classes: In the lower classes or among the tribes - thus the majority of the Indian population - this theory has little or no what effect.

Race mode

All branches of Hinduism operate within the racial regime, although most have vehemently opposed it. In the branches that promote religion, this regime has absolutely no legal basis, but is proposed and required by ancient legal documents, although they belong to the post-Vedic period and have no legal basis. apocalyptic nature. We can fit the racial regime into the model explaining reincarnation without contradiction, but this does not mean that it should be taken for granted. In the Hindus of the Servant, the Madam as well as the Virtues, struggles against the racial system were found, but under the domination of the Muslim and Christian regimes.Later, the space for struggle against traditional structures became narrow. Only in modern times and especially after independence (1947) was the racial regime removed from the constitution .

Worshiping Saints

Finally, what all branches of Hinduism have in common is idolatry. This worship - often with an object of a certain deity - was so popularized that it was included in the monistic branch of the Vedic Non-Dualism, although according to this doctrine the manifestation of a Gods are still on the level of ignorance and illusion.

Batu Caves in Malaysia has the second tallest statue of Lord Murugan in the world, which attracts devotees during the Thaipusam festival (left).

The practice of burning corpses on the banks of the Ganges River and the strange festival of mortification Thaipusam to worship the god of war often take place in Hindu countries such as India, Singapore or Malaysia.

Sati is a custom practiced by Hindus. Accordingly, when the husband died and was cremated, the widow had to jump into the pyre with her husband. It is considered an act of the highest piety and is said to cleanse a woman of all sins, free her from the cycle of reincarnation, and ensure the salvation of her soul. only the husband but also the next 7 generations. The name Sati is named after a god, who committed suicide before his father's humiliation towards her husband - god Shiva. Sacrificing for her husband, thanks to this legend, has become a "symbol of a woman's dedication".

Comment: Outdated conceptions in Hindu teachings such as social class stratification, Ashrama theory about the four stages that people must go through, the law of fruition - reincarnation... have pulled back Indian social life, causing The poor are always deep in backwardness and suffering, although science has advanced a lot and the life of modern society has changed a lot.

Published under Blog on 19 June, 2021.

Latest update on 08 August, 2021.
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